Zogwiritsira ntchito polimbana ndi ndalama komanso njira zopezera ndalama zachigawenga ku The Netherlands ndi ku Ukraine

Introduction

M'dera lathu lomwe tikupanga zida zamagetsi mwachangu, mavuto omwe amabwera chifukwa chobera ndalama mosavomerezeka komanso ndalama zachigawenga akukulirakulira. Kwa mabungwe ndikofunikira kudziwa zoopsa izi. Mabungwe akuyenera kukhala olondola kwambiri pakutsatira. Ku Netherlands, izi zimagwira makamaka mabungwe omwe ali ndi udindo womwe umachokera ku Dutch Law yoletsa kuwononga ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga (Wwft). Izi zimayikidwa kuti zizindikire ndikulimbana ndi kubedwa kwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchifwamba. Kuti mumve zambiri zakukakamizidwa kuchokera ku lamuloli, timalankhula za nkhani yathu yapitayi ya 'Compliance in the Dutch law sector'. Ngati mabungwe azachuma satsatira malamulowa, izi zimatha kukhala ndi zotsatirapo zoyipa. Umboni wa izi ukuwonetsedwa pakuweruza kwaposachedwa kwa Dutch Commission for Appeal yamabizinesi ndi mafakitale (17 Januware 2018, ECLI: NL: CBB: 2018: 6).

Chiweruzo cha Dutch Commission for Appeal for bizinesi ndi mafakitale

Nkhaniyi ndi yokhudza kampani yodalirika yomwe imapereka chithandizo kwa anthu achilengedwe ndi mabungwe azovomerezeka. Kampani yodalirika imamupatsa chithandizo kwa munthu wachilengedwe yemwe anali ndi malo ku Ukraine (munthu A). Malowa anali ofunika USD 10,000,000. Munthu A adapereka ziphaso zandalama zogulitsa malo ku bungwe lalamulo (bungwe B). Zogawana za bungwe B zidasungidwa ndi omwe amasankhidwa kuti azigawana nawo dziko la Ukraine (person C). Chifukwa chake, munthu C ndiye amene adapindula kwambiri ndi malo ogulitsa nyumba. Pakanthawi, munthu C adasamutsa magawo ake kwa munthu wina (munthu D). Munthu C sanalandire chilichonse pobweza magawo awa, adasamutsidwa kupita kwa munthu D kwaulere. Munthu A adauza kampani yodalirika za kusamutsa magawo ndi kampani yodalirika yomwe yasankha munthu D kuti akhale wopindula wamkulu wamalowo. Miyezi ingapo pambuyo pake, kampani yokhulupirika idadziwitsa Dutch Financial Investigation Unit za zochitika zingapo, kuphatikizapo kusamutsa magawo omwe atchulidwa kale. Apa ndipamene mavuto adabuka. Atadziwitsidwa zakusamutsa magawo kuchokera kwa munthu C kupita kwa munthu D, Dutch National Bank idapereka chindapusa cha EUR 40,000 pakampani yodalirika. Chifukwa cha izi chinali kulephera kutsatira Wwft. Malinga ndi Dutch National Bank, kampani yodalirayi idayenera kukayikira kuti kusamutsira masheya kutha kukhala kokhudzana ndi kuwononga ndalama kapena ndalama zauchigawenga, popeza magawo adasamutsidwa kwaulere pomwe malo ogulitsira nyumba anali ofunika ndalama zambiri. Chifukwa chake, kampani yodalirika iyenera kuti idanenapo izi pasanathe masiku khumi ndi anayi, zomwe zimachokera ku Wwft. Cholakwachi nthawi zambiri chimalangidwa ndi chindapusa cha EUR 500,000. Komabe, Dutch National Bank yasinthitsa chindapusichi mpaka kuchuluka kwa EUR 40,000 chifukwa chakulakwa kwake komanso mbiri ya kampani yodalirika.

Kampani yodalirika idabweretsa nkhaniyi kukhothi chifukwa idakhulupirira kuti chindapusa chidaperekedwa mosaloledwa. Kampani yodalirayi inanena kuti ntchitoyi sinali yogulitsa monga yafotokozedwera mu Wwft, popeza kuti ntchitoyi imayenera kukhala yopanda ntchito m'malo mwa munthu A. Komabe, Commission imaganiza zosiyana. Kapangidwe pakati pa munthu A, bungwe B ndi munthu C adapangidwa kuti apewe msonkho womwe ungachitike kuboma la Ukraine. Munthu A adagwira nawo gawo lalikulu pantchitoyi. Kuphatikiza apo, wopindulitsa kwambiri pamalowo adasintha posamutsa magawo kuchokera kwa munthu C kupita kwa munthu D. Izi zimaphatikizaponso kusintha kwamalo a munthu A, popeza munthu A sanalinso ndi malo a munthu C koma munthu D . Munthu A anali wolumikizana kwambiri ndi zochitikazo ndipo chifukwa chake zoperekazo zinali m'malo mwa munthu A. Popeza kuti munthu A ndi kasitomala wa kampani yodalirika, kampani yodalirika iyenera kuti idanenanso zakusinthaku. Kuphatikiza apo, Commissionyo idati kusamutsa masheya ndichinthu chachilendo. Izi zikugona poti magawo adasamutsidwa kwaulere, pomwe mtengo wake umayimira USD 10,000,000. Komanso kufunikira kwa malo ndi nyumba kudali kopambana kuphatikiza zinthu zina za munthu C. Pomaliza, m'modzi mwa oyang'anira ofesi ya trust adati zomwe zidachitikazo zinali 'zachilendo kwambiri', zomwe zimavomereza kuti ntchitoyi ndiyachilendo. Msonkhanowu umayamba kukayikira zakubera ndalama kapena ndalama zachigawenga ndipo ziyenera kuti zinanenedwa mosachedwa. Chindacho chidakhazikitsidwa mwalamulo.

Chiweruzo chonse chikupezeka kudzera pa ulalowu.

Njira zotsutsana ndi ndalama komanso zotsutsana ndi zigawenga ku Ukraine

Mlandu womwe watchulidwa pamwambapa ukuwonetsa kuti kampani yokhulupirika yaku Dutch ikhoza kulipitsidwa chindapusa pazomwe zidachitika ku Ukraine. Lamulo lachi Dutch lingagwiritsenso ntchito mabungwe omwe amagwira ntchito m'maiko ena, bola kulumikizana ndi Netherlands. Dziko la Netherlands lakhazikitsa njira zingapo kuti lizindikire ndikulimbana ndi kubedwa kwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchigawenga. Kwa mabungwe aku Ukraine omwe akufuna kugwira ntchito mkati mwa Netherlands kapena kwa amalonda aku Ukraine omwe akufuna kuyambitsa bizinesi ku Netherlands, kutsatira malamulo achi Dutch kungakhale kovuta. Izi ndichifukwa choti Ukraine ili ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zothana ndi kuwononga ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga ndipo sizinakwaniritse njira zochulukirapo monga Netherlands. Komabe, kulimbana ndi ndalama zobedwa mwachinyengo komanso ndalama zachigawenga tsopano ndi mutu wofunika kwambiri ku Ukraine. Yakhala nkhani yeniyeni, kotero kuti Council of Europe inaganiza zoyambitsa kafukufuku wokhudza kugulitsa ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga ku Ukraine.

Mu 2017, Council of Europe yachita kafukufuku pa njira zotsutsana ndi ndalama komanso ndalama zotsutsana ndi zigawenga ku Ukraine. Kafukufukuyu wachitika ndi komiti yosankhidwa mwapadera, yomwe ndi Komiti ya Akatswiri pa Kuunika kwa Njira Zotsutsana Ndi Ndalama ndi Kupereka Ndalama Zauchifwamba (MONEYVAL). Komitiyi yapereka lipoti la zomwe apeza mu Disembala 2017. Lipotili limapereka chidule cha njira zothana ndi ndalama komanso ndalama zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga zomwe zikuchitika ku Ukraine. Ikuwunika momwe kutsatira kwa Financial Action Task Force 40 Malangizo ndi kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito aku Ukraine olimbana ndi ndalama komanso njira zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga. Ripotilo limaperekanso malingaliro amomwe dongosololi lingalimbikitsidwire.

Zotsatira zazikulu pakufufuza

Komiti yafotokoza zofunikira zingapo zomwe zafufuzidwa, zomwe zafotokozedwa mwachidule pansipa:

  • Ziphuphu zimabweretsa chiopsezo chachikulu pankhani yazachinyengo ku Ukraine. Ziphuphu zimabweretsa zochuluka zachiwawa ndipo zimawononga magwiridwe antchito aboma ndi mabungwe azamalamulo. Akuluakulu akudziwa mavuto omwe amabwera chifukwa cha ziphuphu ndipo akukhazikitsa njira zochepetsera ngozizi. Komabe, kukhazikitsa malamulo pazolimbana ndi katangale pakangoyamba kumene.
  • Ukraine imamvetsetsa bwino za kuwononga ndalama komanso kuwononga ndalama zauchigawenga. Komabe, kumvetsetsa zoopsa izi kumatha kulimbikitsidwa m'malo ena, monga kuwoloka malire, omwe siopanga phindu komanso anthu alamulo. Ukraine yafalitsa njira yolumikizira mayiko ndi kupanga mfundo kuti athane ndi zoopsazi, zomwe zimakhala ndi zotsatira zabwino. Kuchita bizinesi zongopeka, chuma chamithunzi komanso kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama zikuyenerabe kuthana nazo, chifukwa zimabweretsa chiwopsezo chachikulu chobera ndalama.
  • Chiyukireniya Finance Intelligence Unit (UFIU) imapanga nzeru zandalama zapamwamba kwambiri. Izi zimayambitsa kafukufuku. Oyang'anira zamalamulo amafunanso nzeru kuchokera ku UFIU kuti athandizire pakuwunika kwawo. Komabe, IT system ya UFIU ikutha ntchito ndipo magwiridwe antchito satha kuthana ndi ntchito yayikulu. Komabe, Ukraine yachitapo kanthu kuti zikwaniritse malipoti.
  • Kubera ndalama ku Ukraine kumawonekerabe ngati njira yowonjezera milandu ina. Amaganiziridwa kuti kubedwa ndalama kumatha kupita nawo ku khothi ataweruzidwa kuti aphedwe. Zilango zakubera ndalama ndizocheperanso poyerekeza ndi zolakwa zomwe zimachitika. Akuluakulu aku Ukraine ayamba kuchitapo kanthu kuti alande ndalama zina. Komabe, izi sizikuwoneka kuti zikugwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zonse.
  • Kuyambira 2014 Ukraine yakhala ikuganizira za zotsatira za uchigawenga wapadziko lonse lapansi. Izi zidachitika makamaka chifukwa choopsezedwa ndi Islamic State (IS). Kafukufuku wazachuma amachitika mofanana ndi kafukufuku aliyense wokhudzana ndi uchigawenga. Ngakhale mbali zina zadongosolo lothandiza zikuwonetsedwa, dongosolo lazamalamulo silikugwirizana kwathunthu ndi miyezo yapadziko lonse lapansi.
  • Banki Yadziko Lonse ku Ukraine (NBU) imamvetsetsa bwino za zoopsa ndipo imagwiritsa ntchito njira zowopsa zowayang'anira mabanki. Kuyesayesa kwakukulu kwachitika pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti zinthu zikuyenda bwino komanso kuchotsa zigawenga m'manja mwa mabanki. NBU yagwiritsira ntchito zilango zosiyanasiyana kumabanki. Izi zidapangitsa kuti pakhale njira zodzitetezera. Komabe, olamulira ena amafuna kusintha kwakukulu pakugwira ntchito zawo ndikugwiritsa ntchito njira zodzitetezera.
  • Mabungwe ambiri azinsinsi ku Ukraine amadalira pa Unified State Register kuti atsimikizire kukhala ndi mwayi wokhala ndi kasitomala wawo. Komabe, Wolembetsa samawonetsetsa kuti zomwe amapatsidwa ndi anthu alamulo ndizolondola kapena zapano. Izi zimaonedwa ngati nkhani yakuthupi.
  • Ukraine yakhala ikuchita zambiri popereka ndi kufunafuna kuthandizana mwalamulo. Komabe, zinthu monga ndalama zomwe zimasungidwa zimakhudza mphamvu zothandizirana mwalamulo. Mphamvu yaku Ukraine yothandizira imasokonezedwanso chifukwa chakuwonekera pang'ono kwa anthu ovomerezeka.

Mapeto a lipotilo

Kutengera ndi lipotilo, titha kudziwa kuti Ukraine ikukumana ndi zoopsa zowononga ndalama. Ziphuphu ndi zochitika zachuma zosaloledwa ndizowopseza ndalama zambiri. Kuyenda kwa ndalama ku Ukraine ndikokwera ndipo kumawonjezera chuma cha mthunzi ku Ukraine. Chuma chamthunzi ichi chimawopseza kwambiri dongosolo lazachuma komanso chitetezo chachuma mdzikolo. Ponena za chiwopsezo cha ndalama zauchigawenga, Ukraine imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati dziko loyenda kwa iwo omwe akufuna kulowa nawo omenyera nkhondo ku IS. Gawo lopanda phindu limakhala pachiwopsezo chazandalama. Gawoli lagwiritsidwa ntchito molakwika popereka ndalama kwa zigawenga komanso mabungwe azigawenga.

Komabe, Ukraine yatengapo gawo pothana ndi kubedwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchigawenga. Lamulo latsopanoli lotsutsa ndalama / ndalama zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga lidakhazikitsidwa mu 2014. Lamuloli limafuna kuti olamulira azitha kuwunika zoopsa kuti athe kuzindikira zoopsa ndikufotokozera njira zopewera kapena kuchepetsa zoopsazi. Zosintha zidachitikanso mu Code of Criminal Procedure ndi Criminal Code. Kuphatikiza apo, akuluakulu aku Ukraine amamvetsetsa zowopsa zake ndipo amagwira ntchito yolumikizana kunyumba kuti athane ndi kubedwa kwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchigawenga.

Ukraine yatenga kale njira zazikulu kuti athane ndi kubedwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchigawenga. Komabe, pali mwayi woti musinthe. Zolakwitsa zina ndizosatsimikizika zomwe zidatsalira muukadaulo waukadaulo wa Ukraine. Ndondomekoyi iyeneranso kugwirizanitsidwa ndi miyezo yapadziko lonse lapansi. Kuphatikiza apo, kubera ndalama sikuyenera kuwonedwa ngati cholakwa china, osati kungowonjezera mlandu. Izi zipangitsa kuti aweruzidwe komanso kuweruzidwa. Kufufuza zachuma kuyenera kuchitidwa pafupipafupi ndipo kuwunikiridwa ndikufotokozera mwatsatanetsatane za kubedwa kwa ndalama komanso zoopsa zachigawenga ziyenera kukwezedwa. Izi zimawerengedwa kuti ndizofunikira kwambiri ku Ukraine pankhani yokhudza kuwononga ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga.

Ripoti lonse likupezeka kudzera pa ulalowu.

Kutsiliza

Kubera ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga zili pachiwopsezo chachikulu mdera lathu. Chifukwa chake, mitu iyi imayankhidwa padziko lonse lapansi. Dziko la Netherlands lakhazikitsa kale njira zingapo kuti lizindikire ndikuthana ndi kubedwa kwa ndalama komanso ndalama zauchigawenga. Izi sizofunikira kokha m'mabungwe aku Dutch, koma atha kugwiranso ntchito kumakampani omwe akuchita malire. Wwft imagwira ntchito ngati pali kulumikizana ndi Netherlands, monga zikuwonetsera m'chiweruzo chomwe tatchulachi. Kwa mabungwe omwe amakhala pansi pa Wwft, ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti makasitomala awo ndi ndani, kuti azitsatira malamulo achi Dutch. Udindowu ungagwirenso ntchito ku mabungwe aku Ukraine. Izi zitha kukhala zovuta, popeza dziko la Ukraine silinakwaniritse njira zowonongera ndalama komanso ndalama zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga monga Netherlands.

Komabe, lipoti la NDALAMA likuwonetsa kuti Ukraine ikuchitapo kanthu kuti athane ndi kuwononga ndalama ndi ndalama zauchigawenga. Ukraine imamvetsetsa bwino za kuwononga ndalama komanso kuwononga ndalama zauchigawenga, chomwe ndi gawo loyamba lofunikira. Komabe, malamulo amakhalabe ndi zolakwika zina komanso zosatsimikizika zomwe zikuyenera kuthetsedwa. Kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama kambiri ku Ukraine komanso chuma chamithunzi chachikulu chomwe chikutsatira chikuwopseza kwambiri anthu aku Ukraine. Ukraine yasungitsa patsogolo njira zake zotsutsana ndi ndalama komanso ndalama zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga, komabe pali mwayi wosintha. Ndondomeko zalamulo za Netherlands ndi Ukraine zimayandikira pang'onopang'ono, zomwe pamapeto pake zimapangitsa kuti zipani zaku Dutch ndi Ukraine zizigwirizana. Mpaka nthawiyo, ndikofunikira kuti maphwando otere adziwe za malamulo ndi zowona zaku Dutch ndi Ukraine, kuti azitsatira njira zotsutsana ndi ndalama komanso ndalama zotsutsana ndi uchigawenga.

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