Kufunsira kwa bankirapuse

A bankruptcy application is a powerful tool for debt collection. If a debtor does not pay and the claim has not been disputed, a bankruptcy petition can often be used to collect a claim more quickly and cheaply. A petition for bankruptcy can be filed either by petitioner’s own request or at the request of one or more creditors. If there are reasons of public interest, the Public Prosecutor’s Office can also file for bankruptcy.

Kodi nchifukwa ninji munthu amene amakongoletsa fayilo amatumiza ndalama kubanki?

If your debtor fails to pay and it does not look like that the outstanding invoice will be paid, you can file for your debtor’s bankruptcy. This increases the chance that the debt will (partly) be paid off. After all, a company in financial difficulties most of the time still has money in, for example, funds and real estate. In the event of bankruptcy, all of this will be sold for realisation of money to pay the outstanding invoices. A bankruptcy petition of a debtor is handled by a lawyer. A lawyer must ask the court to declare your debtor bankrupt. Your lawyer submit this with a bankruptcy petition. In most cases, the judge will decide directly at the court whether your debtor is declared bankrupt.

Kufunsira kwa bankirapuse

Mumakonda liti?

Mutha kuyimba kuti bankirapuse ngati amene muli naye ngongole:

  • Ali ndi ngongole ziwiri kapena zingapo, 2 zomwe zimadziwika (nthawi yolipira idatha);
  • Ali ndi 2 kapena kupitilira ngongole; ndi
  • Mulimonse momwe iye wasiyira kulipira.

Funso lomwe mumakonda kumamva ndikuti ngati ntchito yofunsira bankirapuse imafuna wopitilira umodzi. Yankho ndi lakuti ayi. Wobwereketsa mmodzi atha kutsatira fkapena kuchepa kwa mangawa. Komabe, bankirapuse imatha analengeza by the court if there are more creditors. These creditors do not necessarily have to be co-applicants. If an entrepreneur applies for the bankruptcy of his debtor, it is enough to prove during the processing that there are several creditors. We call this the ‘plurality requirement’. This can be done by statements of support from other creditors, or even by a declaration by the debtor that he is no longer able to pay his creditors. An applicant must therefore have ‘support claims’ in addition to his own claim. The court will verify this briefly and concisely.

Kutalika kwa zochitika zakumabanki

Kwakukulukulu, khothi lanyumba yamilandu yopanda bankirapuse imachitika mkati mwa masabata 6 kupempha kuti aperekedwe. Lingaliro limatsata pakumvera kapena posachedwa pambuyo pake. Pakumvetsera, maphwando amatha kuloledwa mpaka masabata 8.

Mtengo wazowonongera

Pazochitika izi mumalipira makhothi kukhothi kuwonjezera pa mtengo wa loya.

Kodi njira yofikira ndalama imayamba bwanji?

Bankruptcy proceedings start with the filing of a bankruptcy petition. Your lawyer starts the procedure by submitting a petition to the court asking for your debtor’s declaration of bankruptcy on your behalf. You are the petitioner.

Pempho liyenera kuperekedwa kubwalo lamilandu komwe wobwereketsa alamulidwa. Kuti mulembetse kuti bankirapuse ngati wokongola, wokongoza ngongole ayenera kuyitanidwa kangapo ndipo pamapeto pake alengezedwe kukhala osakwaniritsidwa.

Kuyitanira ku makutu

Pakupita milungu yochepa, loya wanu adzaitanidwa ndi khothi kuti likamvere nawo mlanduwu. Chidziwitsochi chidzanena nthawi yanji komanso kuti kumvetsera kudzachitika. Wokongoza wanu adzadziwitsidwa.

Kodi wobwereketsa sagwirizana ndi zomwe apolisi amafunsa? Amatha kuyankha polemba kumbuyo kapena podziteteza pakamwa pomvera.

Kumva

Sichikakamizo kuti wobwereketsa azimvetsera, koma amalimbikitsidwa. Ngati ngongole siziwoneka, akhoza kulembedwa kuti sangasungire ndalama mwachilungamo.

Inu ndi / kapena loya wanu muyenera kuwonekera pamlanduwu. Ngati palibe yemwe akuwonekera pakumvera pempho akhoza kukanidwa ndi woweruza. Khotilo silikhala pagulu ndipo woweruza amapanga chisankho chake pakumvetsera. Ngati izi sizingatheke, chisankhochi chidzatsatira posachedwa, nthawi zambiri mkati mwa sabata limodzi kapena awiri. Lamuloli lidzatumizidwa kwa inu ndi wokongoza, komanso kwa oweruza omwe akukhudzidwa.

kukanidwa

Ngati ngati ndinu wokongola, simukugwirizana ndi makhothi omwe akukana chigamulo, mutha kukhazikitsa apilo.

Kugawidwa

Khothi litapereka pempholi ndikupempha wobwereketsa kuti ali ndi ngongole, amene ali ndi ngongole atha kukachita apilo. Ngati wobwereketsa apempha, kusowa ndalama kumachitika. Zogwirizana ndi khothi:

  • Wobwereketsa nthawi yomweyo amakhala wopanda ntchito;
  • Woweruza amasankha wothirira madzi; ndi
  • Woweruza amasankha woweruza woyang'anira.

Pambuyo pobweretsa ndalama kubanki, munthu wa (mwalamulo) yemwe walembedwa kuti ali banki ataya kutaya ndi kuyendetsa katunduyo ndipo adzayesedwe wosavomerezeka. Wokolola ndiye yekhayo amene amaloledwa kuchitapo kanthu kuyambira pano. Wobwezeretsa adzakhala m'malo mwa bankrupt (munthuyo alengeza kuti ndi bankrupt), azitha kusungitsa ndalama zabanki zomwe zingawonongeke komanso asamalire zofuna za omwe angongole. Pakakhala mabanki akulu akulu, opimira madzi angapo amatha kusankhidwa. Pazinthu zina, wololera ayenera kupempha chilolezo kwa woweruza wowayang'anira, mwachitsanzo ngati kuchotsedwa kwa ogwira ntchito ndikugulitsa zotsatira zanyumba kapena katundu.

In principle, any income the debtor receives during the bankruptcy, will be added to the assets. In practice, however, the liquidator does this in agreement with the debtor. If a private individual is declared bankrupt, it is important to know what is covered by the bankruptcy and what is not. First necessities and part of the income, for example, are not included in the bankruptcy. The debtor may also perform ordinary legal acts; but the bankrupt’s assets are not bound by this. Furthermore, the liquidator will make the court’s decision public by registering it at the bankruptcy registry and the Chamber of Commerce, and by placing an advertisement in a national newspaper. The bankruptcy registry will register the judgment in the Central Insolvency Register (CIR) and publish it in the Government Gazette. This is developed in order to give other possible creditors the opportunity to report the liquidator and to submit their claims.

Ntchito ya woweruza wowongolera pamilandu iyi ndikuwunika momwe kayendetsedwe kazinthu zantchito yolowerera ndi zochita za wothirira. Potengera woweruza wowongolera, khothi likhoza kulamula kuti lilande bankrupt. Woweruza angathenso kuyitanitsa ndi kumva mboni. Pamodzi ndi wofukizira, woweruza amakonzekeretsa misonkhano yomwe amati ndi yotsimikizira, pomwe azikhala ngati tcheyamani. Misonkhano yotsimikizika imachitika ku khothi ndipo ndi chochitika chomwe mndandanda wa ngongole womwe umakonzedwa ndi wobwereketsa, ukhazikitsidwa.

Kodi chumacho chidzagawidwa bwanji?

Wobwereketsa amatanthauzira dongosolo momwe angongole azilandira: dongosolo la chiwongolero cha omwe abweza ngongole. Mulinso wamkulu motani, ndipamenenso mwayi woti mulandidwe monga wokongoza. Dongosolo la masanjidwewo limatengera mtundu wa ngongole omwe mukufuna kubwezera.

First, as far as possible, the assets debts will be paid. This includes the liquidator’s salary, rent and salary after the bankruptcy date. The remaining balance, goes to the privileged claims, including government taxes and allowances. Any remainder goes to the unsecured (“ordinary”) creditors. Once the abovementioned creditors have been paid, any rest goes to the subordinated creditors. If there is still money left, it will be paid out to the shareholder(s) if it concerns an NV or a BV. In the bankruptcy of a natural person, the remainder goes to the bankrupt. However, this is an exceptional situation. In many cases, not much remains for the unsecured creditors let alone the bankrupt.

Kupatula: olekanitsa

Omwe amadzipatula ngongole ndi:

  • Lamulo lanyumba:

Bizinesi kapena malo okhalamo ndi okhazikika panyumba ndipo wopereka ngongoleyo atha kubera ngongole yanyumba ngati sakulipiritsa.

  • Ufulu wa lonjezo:

Banki yapereka chiwongola dzanja kuti ngati palibe ndalama zomwe zalandidwa, ili ndi ufulu wolonjeza, mwachitsanzo, pamndandanda wazamalonda kapena sitoko.

Zomwe akuti akufuna kudzipatula (zomwe mawuwo amatanthauza kale) zimasiyanitsidwa ndi bankirapuse ndipo zitha kudzinenedwa nthawi yomweyo, osangoyamba kudzinenera kuti wapanga ndalama. Komabe, wofukizira angapemphe wopatukana kuti adikire nthawi yoyenera.

Zotsatira

Kwa inu monga wokongoza, chisankho cha khothi chili ndi zotsatirazi:

  • Simungathe kulanda nokha ngongole
  • Inu kapena loya wanu mupereka zonena zanu ndi umboni waumboni kwa wofukizira
  • Pamsonkhano wotsimikizira, mndandanda womaliza wa zolemba udzajambulidwa
  • Mumalipira molingana ndi mndandanda wa ngongole za liquidator
  • Ngongole yotsala ikhoza kusungidwa pambuyo pobweza

Ngati wokongoza ngongole ndi munthu wachilengedwe, nthawi zina zimachitika kuti pambuyo pobweza, wokongoza ngongoleyo atumiza pemphelo ku khothi kuti lisinthe ndalama zake kuti zikhale ndalama.

Kwa amene ali ndi ngongole, chigamulo cha khothi chili ndi zotsatirazi:

  • Kulanda chuma chonse (kupatula zofunikira)
  • Wobweza amataya kasamalidwe ndi kutaya chuma chake
  • Kulemberana makalata kumapita mwachindunji kwa wotulutsa madzi

Kodi njira zamabanki zimatha bwanji?

Bankirapuse ikhoza kutha motere:

  • Milandu chifukwa cha kusowa kwa zinthu: Ngati palibe zinthu zokwanira kulipira ngongole zina kupatula ngongole zanyumba, bankiratayo idzathetsedwa chifukwa chosowa katundu.
  • Kuchotsa chifukwa cha kukongoletsa ndi omwe angongolere: Wosungirako banki atha kupereka lingaliro limodzi kwaomwe angongole. Lingaliro lotere limatanthawuza kuti bankirayo imalipira gawo limodzi mwa zomwe amafuna, zomwe amamasulidwa nazo ngongole zake zonse.
  • Kuletsa chifukwa chogwirizanitsa mndandanda womaliza wogawa: ndipamene chuma sichikhala ndi kuchuluka kokwanira kugawa okongoza omwe sanatetezedwe, koma omwe amabweretsa ngongole patsogolo akhoza kulipidwa (mwa gawo).
  • Kutsimikiza kwa khothi kugamula malinga ndi chigamulo cha Khothi Loweruza
  • Kuchotsa pempho la bankirapamtunda ndipo panthawi yomweyo kulengeza momwe ntchito yobwezeretsanso ngongoleyo idzakhalire.

Chonde dziwani: Munthu wachibadwidwe amathanso kumangidwanso kumangongole, ngakhale banki itatha. Msonkhano wotsimikizira ukachitika, lamulolo limapereka mwayi pakuchitika, chifukwa lipoti la msonkhano wotsimikizirani limakupatsirani ufulu wa mutu wakupha womwe ukhoza kutsimikiziridwa. Zikatero, simufunikiranso kuweruza kuti mupereke lamulo. Zachidziwikire, funso likadalipo; zingapezekebe pambuyo poti bankirapuse?

Chimachitika ndi chiani ngati wokongoza ngongole sagwirizana panthawi yakubweza?

The debtor is obliged to cooperate and to provide the liquidator with all necessary information. This is the so-called ‘obligation to inform’. If the liquidator is being obstructed, he can take enforcement measures such as a bankruptcy interrogation or a hostage-taking in a Detention Center. If the debtor has performed certain acts before the declaration of bankruptcy, as a result of which creditors have less chance of reclaiming debts, the liquidator can undo these acts (‘bankruptcypauliana’). This must be a legal act which the debtor (the later bankrupt) performed without any obligation, before the declaration of bankruptcy, and by performing this act the debtor knew or should have known that this would result in disadvantage for the creditors.

Pankhani yovomerezeka, ngati wofukizirayo apeza umboni wosonyeza kuti otsogolera agwiritsa ntchito molakwika bungwe lovomerezeka, akhoza kukhala kuti ali ndi mlandu wokha. Komanso, za izi mutha kuwerenga m'mabuku athu akale: Mavuto a oyang'anira ku The Netherlands.

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