Cryptocurrency: zindikirani kuopsa kotsatira

Introduction

M'madera athu omwe akuchulukira mwachangu, ndalama zamakompyuta zimayamba kutchuka. Pakadali pano pali mitundu yambiri ya ma cryptocurrency, monga Bitcoin, Ethereum, ndi Litecoin. Ma Cryptocurrensets ndi digito okha, ndipo ndalama ndi ukadaulo zimasungidwa bwino pogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa blockchain. Ukadaulo uwu umasunga mbiri yotetezeka pachinthu chilichonse pamalo amodzi. Palibe amene amawongolera blockchain popeza maunyolo awa amawongoleredwa pakompyuta iliyonse yomwe ili ndi chikwama cha cryptocurrency. Tekinoloje ya blockchain imaperekanso kusadziwika kwa ogwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency. Kusowa kwa chiwongolero ndi kusadziwika kwa ogwiritsa ntchito kukhoza kuyika mavuto ena kwa amalonda omwe akufuna kugwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency mu kampani yawo. Nkhaniyi ndi kupitilira kwa nkhani yathu yapitayi, 'Cryptocurrency: magawo azovomerezeka aukadaulo wosintha'. Pomwe nkhaniyi yapitayi idayandikira makamaka pamilandu yonse yovomerezeka ya cryptocurrency, nkhaniyi ikuwunikira zoopsa zomwe eni bizinesi angakumane nazo polimbana ndi cryptocurrency ndi kufunika kotsatira.

 

Chiwopsezo chokayikiridwa kuti andibera ndalama

Pomwe kutchera ndalama kwa cryptocurrency kukupezekabe, sikunalembetsedwe ku Netherlands ndi ku Europe konse. Oweruza akuyesetsa kukhazikitsa malamulo atsatanetsatane, koma izi zikhala nthawi yayitali. Komabe, makhothi amtundu waku Dutch adapereka kale zigamulo zingapo pamilandu yokhudza cryptocurrency. Ngakhale zisankho zochepa zomwe zinkakhudza maudindo a cryptocurrency, milandu yambiri inali mkati mwa milandu. Kupatula ndalama kunatenga mbali yayikulu m'maweruzo awa.

Kubwezera ndalama ndi gawo lomwe liyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti bungwe lanu silikuyang'aniridwa ndi Dutch Criminal Code. Kuwononga ndalama ndichizolowezi pansi pamalamulo achifwamba aku Dutch. Izi zimakhazikitsidwa mu zolemba 420bis, 420ter ndi 420 za Dutch Criminal Code. Kubwezera ndalama kumatsimikiziridwa ngati munthu wabisa zenizeni, komwe anachokera, kutalikirana kapena kutaya chinthu china chabwino, kapena kubisala yemwe amapeza phindu kapena wogwirizira zabwino pomwe akudziwa kuti zabwino zimachokera ku zochitika zaupandu. Ngakhale munthu atakhala kuti sakudziwa mwachidziwikire kuti zabwino zimachokera ku zochitika zaupandu koma akanatha kuganiza kuti izi ndi zomwe zimachitika, amatha kupezeka ndi mlandu wakuba ndalama. Izi zitha kulangidwa ndikumangidwa mpaka zaka zinayi (chifukwa chodziwa chiyambi cha zigawenga), kumangidwa mpaka chaka chimodzi (chifukwa choganiza bwino) kapena kulipiritsa ndalama zokwana 67.000 euro. Izi zakhazikitsidwa munkhani 23 ya Dutch Criminal Code. Munthu yemwe amapanga chizolowezi chogwiritsa ntchito ndalama amatha kumangidwa mpaka zaka sikisi.

Pansipa pali zitsanzo zochepa zomwe makhothi achi Dutch adagwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency:

  • Panali milandu yomwe munthu amamuimbira mlandu wakuba ndalama. Analandira ndalama zomwe zimapezeka ndikusintha ma bitcoins kukhala ndalama za fiat. Ma bitcoins awa adapezeka kudzera pa intaneti yamdima, pomwe ma IP-ma adilesi a ogwiritsa ntchito amabisidwa. Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti tsamba lakuda limagwiritsidwa ntchito kokha kugulitsa zinthu zosaloledwa, kuti liperekedwe ndi ma bitcoins. Chifukwa chake, khotilo likuganiza kuti bitcoins zopezeka kudzera pa intaneti yakuda ndizachinyengo. Khotilo lidati wokayikirayo adalandira ndalama zomwe zimapezeka ndikusintha ma bitcoins omwe amachokera kuupandu kukhala ndalama za fiat. Wokayikirayo amadziwa kuti ma bitcoins nthawi zambiri amakhala achifwamba. Komabe, sanafufuze komwe ndalama za fiat zomwe adapeza. Chifukwa chake, wavomera mwadala mwayi womwe ndalama zomwe adalandira zidachitidwa pazochita zosaloledwa. Anapezeka kuti ndi wolakwa ndalama. [1]
  • Pankhaniyi, Fiscal Information and Investigation Service (mu Dutch: FIOD) idayambitsa kufufuza kwa amalonda a bitcoin. Wokayikira, pamenepa, adapatsa ma bizinesi kwa amalonda ndikuwasintha kuti akhale ndalama za ndalama. Wokayikirayo adagwiritsa ntchito chikwama cha pa intaneti pomwe ma bitcoins ambiri adasungidwa, omwe amachokera pa intaneti yakuda. Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, ma bitcoins awa amawaganizira kuti ndi ochokera kosaloledwa. Wosakayikirayo anakana kufotokoza mwatsatanetsatane za komwe ma bitcoins adachokera. Khotilo lidati wokayikirayo amadziwa bwino komwe kunachokera ma bitcoins mosavomerezeka chifukwa adapita kwa amalonda omwe amatsimikizira kusadziwika kwa makasitomala awo ndikupempha komiti yayikulu ntchito imeneyi. Chifukwa chake, khotilo lidati zomwe akuganiza zitha kuganiziridwa. Anapezeka kuti ndi wolakwa ndalama. [2]
  • Mlandu wotsatira ukukhudzana ndi banki ya Dutch, IN. ING idalowa mgwirizano wamabanki ndi wamalonda wa bitcoin. Monga bank, ING ili ndi zowunikira zina komanso kufufuza. Adazindikira kuti kasitomala wawo amagwiritsa ntchito ndalama kuti agule ma bitcoins kwa anthu ena. ING idathetsa chiyanjano chawo kuyambira komwe ndalama zomwe amalipira ndalama sizingayang'anitsidwe ndipo ndalama zitha kupezeka kudzera pazinthu zosaloledwa. ING imamverera ngati kuti sangathe kukwaniritsa udindo wawo wa KYC popeza sakanatha kutsimikizira kuti maakaunti awo sagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga ndalama komanso kupewa ngozi zokhudzana ndi umphumphu. Khotilo linati kasitomala wa ING sanakwanitse kutsimikizira kuti ndalama zandalama zinali zovomerezeka. Chifukwa chake, ING idaloledwa kuthetsa ubale wamabanki. [3]

Zigamulo izi zikuwonetsa kuti kugwira ntchito ndi cryptocurrency kumatha kukhala pachiwopsezo pakutsata. Pomwe chidziwitso cha cryptocurrency sichikudziwika, ndipo ndalama zake zimachokera ku tsamba lakuda, kukayikira zakupangira ndalama kumatha kubuka mosavuta.

Compliance

Popeza ndalama zandalama sizinayendetsedwebe ndipo kusungidwa kosadziwika m'mabizinesi kumatsimikiziridwa, ndi njira yokongola yolipilira yomwe ingagwiritsidwe ntchito pakuchita zachiwawa. Chifukwa chake, cryptocurrency ili ndi tanthauzo lina loipa ku Netherlands. Izi zikuwonekeranso poti Dutch Financial Services and Markets Authority imalangiza motsutsana ndi malonda azachuma. Amanena kuti kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama za ma cryptocurrensets kumabweretsa zoopsa pamilandu yachuma, chifukwa kubedwa ndalama, chinyengo, chinyengo, komanso kusokoneza ena kumatha kuchitika mosavuta. [4] Izi zikutanthauza kuti muyenera kukhala olondola kwambiri pakutsatira mukamagwiritsa ntchito ndalama za cryptocurrency. Muyenera kuwonetsa kuti ndalama zomwe mumalandira sizimapezeka pazinthu zosaloledwa. Muyenera kutsimikizira kuti mwafufuzadi za komwe ndalama za cryptocurrency mudalandira. Izi zitha kukhala zovuta kwa anthu omwe amagwiritsa ntchito ndalama za crypto nthawi zambiri samadziwika. Nthawi zambiri, bwalo lamilandu lachi Dutch likakhala ndi chigamulo chokhudza cryptocurrency, limakhala mkati mwa zigawenga. Pakadali pano, olamulira sawunika mwachangu malonda azandalama. Komabe, cryptocurrency ili ndi chidwi chawo. Chifukwa chake, kampani ikakhala ndi ubale ndi cryptocurrency, olamulira amakhala tcheru kwambiri. Olamulira mwina adzafuna kudziwa momwe ndalama za cryptocurrency zimapezedwera komanso komwe ndalama zimayambira. Ngati simungayankhe mafunso awa moyenera, kukayikira zakubera ndalama kapena zolakwa zina zitha kuchitika ndipo kafukufuku wokhudza bungwe lanu angayambike.

Kuwongolera kwa cryptocurrency

Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, ndalama zandalama sizinafotokozeredwe. Komabe, kugulitsa ndikugwiritsa ntchito ma cryptocurrensets mwina adzayendetsedwa mosamalitsa, chifukwa cha ziwopsezo zachuma komanso zandalama zomwe zimaphatikizapo. Malamulo a cryptocurrency ndi mutu wazokambirana padziko lonse lapansi. International Monetary Fund (bungwe la United Nations lomwe limagwira ntchito mogwirizana padziko lonse lapansi pazachuma, kuteteza kukhazikika kwachuma ndikuthandizira malonda apadziko lonse lapansi) ikuyitanitsa mgwirizano wapadziko lonse lapansi pazachuma monga momwe anachenjezera mavuto azachuma komanso milandu. [5] European Union ikutsutsana ngati ikuwunika kapena kuwunika ndalama za crypto, ngakhale sanapange malamulo apadera. Kuphatikiza apo, kuwongolera ndalama za cryptocurrency kumakambirana m'maiko angapo, monga China, South-Korea, ndi Russia. Mayikowa akutenga kapena akufuna kuchitapo kanthu kuti akhazikitse malamulo okhudza ma cryptocurrensets. Ku Netherlands, Financial Services and Markets Authority yanena kuti makampani azachuma ali ndi udindo wosamalira akapereka mwayi wamtsogolo kwa ogulitsa mabizinesi ku Netherlands. Izi zikutanthawuza kuti makampani azachuma akuyenera kusamalira chidwi cha makasitomala awo mwaukadaulo, mwachilungamo komanso moona mtima. [6] Zokambirana zapadziko lonse lapansi zakusungitsa ndalama za cryptocurrency zikuwonetsa kuti mabungwe ambiri amaganiza kuti ndikofunikira kukhazikitsa mtundu wina wamalamulo.

Kutsiliza

Palibe chovuta kunena kuti cryptocurrency ikukwera. Komabe, anthu akuwoneka kuti amaiwala kuti kugulitsa ndi kugwiritsa ntchito ndalamazi kumakhalanso ndi ngozi. Musanadziwe, mutha kugwera pamulingo wa Dutch Criminal Code mukamachita ndi cryptocurrency. Ndalama izi nthawi zambiri zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi zochitika zaupandu, makamaka kuwononga ndalama. Kugonjera ndikofunikira kwambiri kumakampani omwe safuna kutsutsidwa chifukwa cha zolakwa. Kudziwa koyambira kwa ma cryptocurrencies kumachita gawo lalikulu mu izi. Popeza cryptocurrency ili ndi tanthauzo loipa, mayiko ndi mabungwe akutsutsana kuti akhazikitse malamulo okhudzana ndi cryptocurrency. Ngakhale mayiko ena adachitapo kale kanthu potsatira malamulo, zitha kutenga kanthawi kuti malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi azikwaniritsidwa. Chifukwa chake, ndikofunikira kwambiri kuti makampani azisamala akamagwiritsa ntchito ndalama za cryptocurrency ndikuwonetsetsa kuti azitsatira.

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutatha kuwerenga nkhaniyi, chonde omasuka kulankhulana ndi a Maxim Hodak, woweruza milandu ku Law & More kudzera pa maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, kapena Tom Meevis, loya wa ku Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, kapena itanani + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Lipoti Ntchito za Fintech ndi Zachuma: Zoyambirira Kuzilingalira, International Monetary Fund 2017.

[6] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Bitcoin Futures: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

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