Cryptocurrency: zindikirani kuopsa kotsatira

Introduction

M'madera athu omwe akuchulukira mwachangu, ndalama zamakompyuta zimayamba kutchuka. Pakadali pano pali mitundu yambiri ya ma cryptocurrency, monga Bitcoin, Ethereum, ndi Litecoin. Ma Cryptocurrensets ndi digito okha, ndipo ndalama ndi ukadaulo zimasungidwa bwino pogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa blockchain. Ukadaulo uwu umasunga mbiri yotetezeka pachinthu chilichonse pamalo amodzi. Palibe amene amawongolera blockchain popeza maunyolo awa amawongoleredwa pakompyuta iliyonse yomwe ili ndi chikwama cha cryptocurrency. Tekinoloje ya blockchain imaperekanso kusadziwika kwa ogwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency. Kusowa kwa chiwongolero ndi kusadziwika kwa ogwiritsa ntchito kukhoza kuyika mavuto ena kwa amalonda omwe akufuna kugwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency mu kampani yawo. Nkhaniyi ndi kupitilira kwa nkhani yathu yapitayi, 'Cryptocurrency: magawo azovomerezeka aukadaulo wosintha'. Pomwe nkhaniyi yapitayi idayandikira makamaka pamilandu yonse yovomerezeka ya cryptocurrency, nkhaniyi ikuwunikira zoopsa zomwe eni bizinesi angakumane nazo polimbana ndi cryptocurrency ndi kufunika kotsatira.

 

Chiwopsezo chokayikiridwa kuti andibera ndalama

Pomwe kutchera ndalama kwa cryptocurrency kukupezekabe, sikunalembetsedwe ku Netherlands ndi ku Europe konse. Oweruza akuyesetsa kukhazikitsa malamulo atsatanetsatane, koma izi zikhala nthawi yayitali. Komabe, makhothi amtundu waku Dutch adapereka kale zigamulo zingapo pamilandu yokhudza cryptocurrency. Ngakhale zisankho zochepa zomwe zinkakhudza maudindo a cryptocurrency, milandu yambiri inali mkati mwa milandu. Kupatula ndalama kunatenga mbali yayikulu m'maweruzo awa.

Kubwezera ndalama ndi gawo lomwe liyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti bungwe lanu silikuyang'aniridwa ndi Dutch Criminal Code. Kuwononga ndalama ndichizolowezi pansi pamalamulo achifwamba aku Dutch. Izi zimakhazikitsidwa mu zolemba 420bis, 420ter ndi 420 za Dutch Criminal Code. Kubwezera ndalama kumatsimikiziridwa ngati munthu wabisa zenizeni, komwe anachokera, kutalikirana kapena kutaya chinthu china chabwino, kapena kubisala yemwe amapeza phindu kapena wogwirizira zabwino pomwe akudziwa kuti zabwino zimachokera ku zochitika zaupandu. Ngakhale munthu atakhala kuti sakudziwa mwachidziwikire kuti zabwino zimachokera ku zochitika zaupandu koma akanatha kuganiza kuti izi ndi zomwe zimachitika, amatha kupezeka ndi mlandu wakuba ndalama. Izi zitha kulangidwa ndikumangidwa mpaka zaka zinayi (chifukwa chodziwa chiyambi cha zigawenga), kumangidwa mpaka chaka chimodzi (chifukwa choganiza bwino) kapena kulipiritsa ndalama zokwana 67.000 euro. Izi zakhazikitsidwa munkhani 23 ya Dutch Criminal Code. Munthu yemwe amapanga chizolowezi chogwiritsa ntchito ndalama amatha kumangidwa mpaka zaka sikisi.

Pansipa pali zitsanzo zochepa zomwe makhothi achi Dutch adagwiritsa ntchito cryptocurrency:

  • Panali milandu yomwe munthu amamuimbira mlandu wakuba ndalama. Analandira ndalama zomwe zimapezeka ndikusintha ma bitcoins kukhala ndalama za fiat. Ma bitcoins awa adapezeka kudzera pa intaneti yamdima, pomwe ma IP-ma adilesi a ogwiritsa ntchito amabisidwa. Kafukufuku akuwonetsa kuti tsamba lakuda limagwiritsidwa ntchito kokha kugulitsa zinthu zosaloledwa, kuti liperekedwe ndi ma bitcoins. Chifukwa chake, khotilo likuganiza kuti bitcoins zopezeka kudzera pa intaneti yakuda ndizachinyengo. Khotilo lidati wokayikirayo adalandira ndalama zomwe zimapezeka ndikusintha ma bitcoins omwe amachokera kuupandu kukhala ndalama za fiat. Wokayikirayo amadziwa kuti ma bitcoins nthawi zambiri amakhala achifwamba. Komabe, sanafufuze komwe ndalama za fiat zomwe adapeza. Chifukwa chake, wavomera mwadala mwayi womwe ndalama zomwe adalandira zidachitidwa pazochita zosaloledwa. Anapezeka kuti ndi wolakwa ndalama. [1]
  • Pankhaniyi, Fiscal Information and Investigation Service (mu Dutch: FIOD) idayambitsa kufufuza kwa amalonda a bitcoin. Wokayikira, pamenepa, adapatsa ma bizinesi kwa amalonda ndikuwasintha kuti akhale ndalama za ndalama. Wokayikirayo adagwiritsa ntchito chikwama cha pa intaneti pomwe ma bitcoins ambiri adasungidwa, omwe amachokera pa intaneti yakuda. Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, ma bitcoins awa amawaganizira kuti ndi ochokera kosaloledwa. Wosakayikirayo anakana kufotokoza mwatsatanetsatane za komwe ma bitcoins adachokera. Khotilo lidati wokayikirayo amadziwa bwino komwe kunachokera ma bitcoins mosavomerezeka chifukwa adapita kwa amalonda omwe amatsimikizira kusadziwika kwa makasitomala awo ndikupempha komiti yayikulu ntchito imeneyi. Chifukwa chake, khotilo lidati zomwe akuganiza zitha kuganiziridwa. Anapezeka kuti ndi wolakwa ndalama. [2]
  • Mlandu wotsatira ukukhudzana ndi banki ya Dutch, IN. ING idalowa mgwirizano wamabanki ndi wamalonda wa bitcoin. Monga bank, ING ili ndi zowunikira zina komanso kufufuza. Adazindikira kuti kasitomala wawo amagwiritsa ntchito ndalama kuti agule ma bitcoins kwa anthu ena. ING idathetsa chiyanjano chawo kuyambira komwe ndalama zomwe amalipira ndalama sizingayang'anitsidwe ndipo ndalama zitha kupezeka kudzera pazinthu zosaloledwa. ING imamverera ngati kuti sangathe kukwaniritsa udindo wawo wa KYC popeza sakanatha kutsimikizira kuti maakaunti awo sagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga ndalama komanso kupewa ngozi zokhudzana ndi umphumphu. Khotilo linati kasitomala wa ING sanakwanitse kutsimikizira kuti ndalama zandalama zinali zovomerezeka. Chifukwa chake, ING idaloledwa kuthetsa ubale wamabanki. [3]

Zigamulo izi zikuwonetsa kuti kugwira ntchito ndi cryptocurrency kumatha kukhala pachiwopsezo pakutsata. Pomwe chidziwitso cha cryptocurrency sichikudziwika, ndipo ndalama zake zimachokera ku tsamba lakuda, kukayikira zakupangira ndalama kumatha kubuka mosavuta.

Compliance

Since cryptocurrency is not yet regulated and anonymity in transactions is ensured, it is an attractive means of payment to be used for criminal activities. Therefore, cryptocurrency has some sort of negative connotation in the Netherlands. This is also shown in the fact that the Dutch Financial Services and Markets Authority advises against trading in cryptocurrencies. They state that using cryptocurrencies poses risks with regard to economic crimes, since money laundering, deception, fraud, and manipulation can easily arise.[4] This means you have to be very accurate with compliance when dealing with cryptocurrency. You have to be able to show that the cryptocurrency you receive is not obtained through illegal activities. You have to be able to prove you really investigated the origin of the cryptocurrency you received. This could prove to be difficult for the people who use cryptocurrency are often unidentifiable. Very often, when the Dutch court has a ruling concerning cryptocurrency, it is within the criminal spectrum. At the moment, authorities do not actively monitor the trade in cryptocurrencies. However, cryptocurrency does have their attention. Therefore, when a company has a relationship with cryptocurrency, authorities will be extra alert. Authorities will probably want to know how the cryptocurrency is obtained and what the origin of the currency is. If you cannot answer these questions properly, suspicion of money laundering or other criminal offenses may arise and an investigation concerning your organization might be started.

Kuwongolera kwa cryptocurrency

As stated above, cryptocurrency is not yet regulated. However, the trade and use of cryptocurrencies will probably be strictly regulated, due to the criminal and financial risks cryptocurrency entails. The regulation of cryptocurrency is a topic of conversation all around the world. The International Monetary Fund (a United Nations organization that works on global monetary cooperation, securing financial stability and facilitating international trade) is calling for global coordination on cryptocurrencies as it warned for both financial and criminal risks.[5] The European Union is debating whether to regulate or monitor cryptocurrencies, though they have not yet created specific legislation. Furthermore, regulation of cryptocurrency is a subject of debate in several individual countries, such as China, South-Korea, and Russia. These countries are taking or want to take steps in order to establish rules concerning cryptocurrencies. In the Netherlands, the Financial Services and Markets Authority has pointed out that investment firms have a general duty of care when they offer Bitcoin-futures to retail investors in the Netherlands. This entails that these investment firms must take care of the interest of their clients in a professional, fair and honest way.[6] The global discussion on the regulation of cryptocurrency shows that numerous of organizations think it is necessary to establish at least some kind of legislation.

Kutsiliza

Palibe chovuta kunena kuti cryptocurrency ikukwera. Komabe, anthu akuwoneka kuti amaiwala kuti kugulitsa ndi kugwiritsa ntchito ndalamazi kumakhalanso ndi ngozi. Musanadziwe, mutha kugwera pamulingo wa Dutch Criminal Code mukamachita ndi cryptocurrency. Ndalama izi nthawi zambiri zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi zochitika zaupandu, makamaka kuwononga ndalama. Kugonjera ndikofunikira kwambiri kumakampani omwe safuna kutsutsidwa chifukwa cha zolakwa. Kudziwa koyambira kwa ma cryptocurrencies kumachita gawo lalikulu mu izi. Popeza cryptocurrency ili ndi tanthauzo loipa, mayiko ndi mabungwe akutsutsana kuti akhazikitse malamulo okhudzana ndi cryptocurrency. Ngakhale mayiko ena adachitapo kale kanthu potsatira malamulo, zitha kutenga kanthawi kuti malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi azikwaniritsidwa. Chifukwa chake, ndikofunikira kwambiri kuti makampani azisamala akamagwiritsa ntchito ndalama za cryptocurrency ndikuwonetsetsa kuti azitsatira.

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutatha kuwerenga nkhaniyi, chonde omasuka kulankhulana ndi a Maxim Hodak, woweruza milandu ku Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, an attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, ‘Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Report Ntchito za Fintech ndi Zachuma: Zoyambirira Kuzilingalira, International Monetary Fund 2017.

[6] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, ‘Bitcoin Futures: AFM op ’, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

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