Cryptocurrency: EU ndi Dutch Legal Aspects of Revolutionary Technology

Introduction

Kukula kwapadziko lonse lapansi komanso kutchuka kwakuchuluka kwa cryptocurrency kwadzetsa mafunso okhudzana ndi zomwe zikuwongolera zachuma zatsopanozi. Ndalama zowona bwino ndi za digito ndipo zimakonzedwa kudzera pa intaneti yomwe imadziwika kuti blockchain, yomwe imayikidwa pa intaneti yomwe imasunga mbiri iliyonse yotetezedwa pamalo amodzi. Palibe amene amawongolera blockchain, chifukwa maunyolo awa amawongoleredwa pakompyuta iliyonse yomwe ili ndi chikwama cha Bitcoin. Izi zikutanthauza kuti palibe bungwe limodzi lomwe limayang'anira maukonde, zomwe zimatanthawuza kukhalapo kwa ngozi zambiri zachuma komanso zalamulo.

Blockchain startups have embraced Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) as a way to raise early capital. An ICO is an offering whereby a company can sell digital tokens to the public in order to fund operations and meet other business objectives.[1] Also ICOs are not governed by specific regulations or government agencies. This lack of regulation has raised concern about the potential risks investors run. As a result, volatility has become a concern. Unfortunately, if an investor loses funds during this process, they have no standardized course of action to recover the lost money.

Cryptocurrency - EU ndi Dutch Legal Aspects of Revolutionary Technology

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Ndalama Zowoneka bwino ku European Level

Zowopsa zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndikugwiritsa ntchito ndalama zenizeni zimakweza kufunikira kwa European Union ndi mabungwe ake kuti azilamulira. Komabe, malamulo pamayiko a European Union ndi ovuta, chifukwa cha kusintha kwa kayendetsedwe ka malamulo ka EU komanso kagwiritsidwe kake kosasintha pamagawo mamembala onse.

Ponena za ndalama zamakono sizikulamulidwa pamlingo wa EU ndipo sizoyang'aniridwa kapena kuyang'aniridwa ndi boma lililonse la EU, ngakhale kuti kutenga nawo gawo pazinthu izi kumapangitsa ogwiritsa ntchito kukhala ndi mbiri, ngongole, magwiridwe antchito komanso malamulo. Izi zikutanthauza kuti oyang'anira mayiko akuyenera kuganizira ngati akufuna kuvomereza kapena kukhazikitsa malamulo okhazikika ndi kuwongolera ndalama.

Ndalama Zakunja ku Netherlands

According to the Dutch Financial Supervision Act (FSA) electronic money represents a monetary value that is stored electronically or magnetically. This monetary value is intended to be used to perform payment transactions and can be used to make payments to other parties than the one that issued the electronic money.[2] Virtual currencies cannot be defined as electronic money, because not all legal criteria are met. If cryptocurrency cannot be legally defined as money or electronic money, as what can it be defined? In the context of the Dutch Financial Supervision Act cryptocurrency is just a medium of exchange. Everyone has the freedom to engage in barter trade, therefore permission in the form of a license is not required. The Minister of Finance indicated that the revision of the formal legal definition of electronic money is not yet desirable, given the bitcoin’s limited scope, relatively low level of acceptance, and limited relationship to the real economy. He emphasized that the consumer is solely responsible for their use.[3]

According to the Dutch District Court (Overijssel) and the Dutch Minister of Finance a virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, has the status of a medium of exchange.[4] In appeal the Dutch Court considered that bitcoins can be qualified as sold objects as referred to in article 7:36 DCC. The Dutch Court of Appeal also stated that bitcoins cannot be qualified as legal tender but only as a medium of exchange. In contrast, the European Court of Justice ruled that bitcoins should be treated as a means of payment, indirectly suggesting bitcoins are similar to legal tender.[5]

Kutsiliza

Chifukwa cha zovuta zomwe zimaphatikizira kuyendetsa kwa ma cryptocurrencies, titha kuganiza kuti Khothi Lachilungamo la EU liyenera kugwira nawo ntchito yomasulira mawu. Potengera maiko a Mamembala omwe asankha kusintha mawu mosiyana ndi malamulo a EU, zovuta zimatha kubweranso ndikutanthauzira mogwirizana ndi malamulo a EU. Kuchokera pamalingaliro awa, ndikofunikira kupangira ma membala a mamembala kuti azitsatira malamulo apadera a EU pomwe akukwaniritsa lamuloli kukhala malamulo apadziko lonse.

Mtundu wathunthu wa pepala loyera ili umapezeka kudzera pa ulalo.

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mukawerenga nkhaniyi, chonde muzimasuka kulankhulana ndi Mr. Maxim Hodak, woweruza milandu ku Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, kapena itanani + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: What’s the Difference?, Bitcoin Market Journal september 2017.

[2] The Financial Supervision Act, section 1:1

[3] Ministerie van Financiën, Beantwowering van kamervragen over het gebruik van en to toezicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, Disembala 2013.

[4] ECLI:NL:RBOVE:2014:2667.

[5] ECLI:EU:C:2015:718.

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