Kusudzulana ndi Kholo la Kholo. Kodi muyenera kudziwa chiyani?

Kodi ndinu okwatiwa kapena muli ndi mgwirizano wolembetsedwa? Zikatero, lamulo lathu limakhazikitsidwa ndi mfundo za chisamaliro ndi kulera kwa ana ndi makolo onse awiri, malinga ndi Article 1: 247 BW. Pafupifupi ana 60,000 amasudzulidwa ndi makolo awo chaka chilichonse. Komabe, ngakhale atatha chisudzulo, anawo ali ndi ufulu kusamaliridwa komanso kuleredwa ndi makolo onse awiri ndi makolo omwe ali ndi udindo wosunga makolo, akupitiliza kugwiritsa ntchito ulamulirowu mogwirizana mogwirizana ndi Article 1: 251 ya Dutch Civil Code. Mosiyana ndi zakale, makolowo amakhalabe oyang'anira makolo ogwirizana.

Kusudzulana ndi Kholo la Kholo. Kodi muyenera kudziwa chiyani?

Kusungidwa kwa makolo kungafotokozeredwe ngati ufulu wonse ndi udindo womwe makolo ali nawo wokhudza kuleredwa ndi kusamalidwa kwa ana awo achichepere ndipo zimakhudzana ndi izi: munthu wam'ng'ono komanso mwachisawawa. Makamaka, imakhudzanso udindo wa makolo pakukula kwa umunthu, thanzi ndi thanzi komanso chitetezo cha mwana, zomwe zimaletsa kugwiritsa ntchito mwankhanza zilizonse m'maganizo kapena mthupi. Kuphatikiza apo, kuyambira mu 2009, kusunga mwana kumakhalanso ndi udindo wa kholo kuti athe kukulitsa mgwirizano pakati pa mwana ndi kholo linalo. Kupatula apo, nyumba yamalamulo imawona kuti ndizabwino kwambiri kuti mwana athe kulumikizana ndi makolo onse awiri.

Komabe, zinthu zina zitha kuchitika momwe kupitilirabe ulamuliro wa makolo ndipo motero kuyanjana ndi kholo limodzi pambuyo pa chisudzulo sikungatheke kapena kosafunikira. Ichi ndichifukwa chake Article 1: 251a ya Dutch Civil Code ili, kupatula lamulo, mwayi wopempha khothi kuti liziwapatsa mwana wina kholo limodzi atasudzulana. Chifukwa izi ndizopadera, khothi lingopereka ulamulilo wa makolo pazifukwa ziwiri:

  1. ngati pali chiopsezo chosavomerezeka choti mwana angakololedwe kapena kutayidwa pakati pa makolo ndipo sizikuyembekezeredwa kuti kusintha kokwanira kudzakwaniritsidwa m'tsogolo.
  2. Ngati kusintha kwa chisamaliro kuli kofunikira pazabwino za mwana.

The first criterion has been developed in case law and  the assessment of whether this criterion is met, is very casuistically. For example, the lack of good communication between the parents and the simple failure to comply with the parental access arrangement does not automatically mean that in the best interest of the child, parental authority must be assigned to one of the parents.[1] Pomwe amafunsira kuti achotse ndende yolumikizana komanso kuperekedwa kwa m'modzi mwa makolo panthawi yomwe kulankhulana kulibe[2], zikuwoneka kuti panali nkhanza zazikulu zapabanja, kusenda, kuwopseza[3] kapena momwe kholo losamala limasokonezeka ndi kholo linalo[4], adalandira. Ponena za chitsimikizo chachiwiri, kulingalira kuyenera kukhazikitsidwa ndi zowona zokwanira kuti ulamuliro wa kholo limodzi umakhala wofunikira pazabwino za mwana. Chitsanzo cha chitsimikizo ichi ndi momwe zisankho zofunika kupangira mwana zimakhalira ndipo makolo sangathe kufunsa za mwana mtsogolo komanso kuti apange chisankho kuchitika mokwanira komanso mwachangu, zomwe mosiyana ndi zofuna za mwana.[5] Pazonse, woweruza safuna kusintha komwe kukhala ogwirizana amodzi mndende, mwachidziwikire nthawi yoyamba chisudzulo chitatha.

Kodi mukufuna kukhala ndi ulamuliro wa makolo pa ana anu okha mutatha kusudzulana? Zikatero, muyenera kuyambitsa milandu popereka pempholo kuti mulandire udindo wa makolo kukhothi. Pempho liyenera kukhala ndi chifukwa chomwe mukufunira kuti mwana asamalire. Woyimira milandu amafunika kuchita izi. Woyimira wanu amakonzekera pempholi, amasankha kuti awapatse zikalata zina ziti ndikupereka khothi. Ngati pempho lokhala ndi mayi yekha laperekedwa, kholo linalo kapena ena okondweretsedwa adzapatsidwa mwayi woyankha pempho ili. Kamodzi kukhothi, njira yokhudzana ndi kupatsidwa kwa utsogoleri wa makolo imatha kutenga nthawi yayitali: miyezi yochepera itatu mpaka kupitirira chaka chimodzi, kutengera kuvuta kwa milandu.

Pa milandu yayikulu, woweruza amafufuza Bungwe la Kusamalira Ana ndi Chitetezo kuti achite kafukufuku ndikupereka malangizo (zojambula 810 ndime 1 DCCP). Ngati khonsolo ikuyambitsa kafukufuku wofunsa woweruza, izi zikutanthauza kuti pang'onopang'ono milanduyo izengeleza. Cholinga chofufuzira kotere ndi bungwe loteteza ana ndi kuteteza ana ndikuwathandiza makolo kuthetsa mikangano yawo yokhudza kulera mwana mokomera mwana. Pokhapokha ngati izi sizikuyambitsa zotsatira mkati mwa masabata anayi pomwe khonsoloyo ipitilize kusonkhanitsa zofunikira ndikupereka upangiri. Pambuyo pake, khothi likhoza kupereka kapena kukana pempho la ulamuliro wa makolo. Woweruza nthawi zambiri amapereka pempholo ngati akuwona kuti zofunikira pempho zakwaniritsidwa, palibe chokana pempho la kusungidwa ndipo womusungira ali mokomera mwana. Nthawi zina, woweruza amakana pempholi.

At Law & More tikumvetsetsa kuti kusudzulana ndi nthawi yovuta kwambiri kwa inu. Komanso, ndi nzeru kuganizira za udindo wa makolo kuposa ana anu. Kumvetsetsa bwino zomwe zikuchitika komanso zomwe mungasankhe ndizofunikira. Law & More ingakuthandizeni kudziwa udindo wanu mwalamulo ndipo ngati mukufuna, chotsani ntchito yofunsira ulamuliro wokhala kholo limodzi m'manja mwanu. Kodi mumakhala mumodzi mwa omwe afotokozedwa pamwambapa, kodi mukufuna kuti mukhale kholo lokha kuti musamalire mwana wanu kapena muli ndi mafunso ena? Chonde funsani alamulo a Law & More.

[1] HR 10 september 1999, ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2963; HR 19 april 2002, ECLI: NL: PHR: 2002: AD9143.

[2] HR 30 september 2011, ECLI:NL:HR:2011:BQ8782.

[3] Hof 's-Hertogenbosch 1 maart 2011, ECLI: NL: GHSGR: 2011: BP6694.

[4] HR 9 juli 2010 ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM4301.

[5] Hof Amsterdam 8 augustus 2017, ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2017: 3228.

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