Chitetezo pazachuma mkati mwa malamulo abungwe

Kwa amalonda, kupeza chitetezo cha ndalama ndikofunikira kwambiri. Mukalowa mgwirizano ndi gulu lina, mukufuna kuwonetsetsa kuti mnzakeyo akukwaniritsa udindo wake wolipira mgwirizano. Ngati mupereka ndalama kapena mukugulitsa ndalama kuti mupindulitse munthu wina, mukufunanso chitsimikizo kuti ndalama zomwe mwapereka zidzabwezedwa. Mwanjira ina, mukufuna kupeza chuma. Kupeza chitetezo chachuma kumawonetsera kuti wobwereketsa ali ndi khola akazindikira kuti zomwe akufuna kunena sizikwaniritsidwa. Pali kuthekera kosiyanasiyana kwa amalonda ndi makampani kuti apeze chitetezo cha ndalama. Munkhaniyi, zovuta zingapo, escrow, (kampani ya makolo), chidziwitso cha 403, kubweza ngongole ndi chikole zidzakambidwa.

Chitetezo pazachuma mkati mwa malamulo abungwe

1. Ngongole zingapo

Pankhani ya ngongole zingapo, zomwe zimatchedwanso kuti liwengo limodzi, palibenso cholankhula chilichonse chomwe chimaperekedwa, koma pali wokongoza mnzake amene amatenga nawo ngongole ena. Zovuta zingapo zimachokera palemba 6: 6 Dutch Civil Code. Zitsanzo za mangawa angapo mkati mwamaubwenzi ndi omwe ali ndi mgwirizano wamilandu omwe ali ndi chindapusa cha ngongole za mgwirizano kapena owongolera bungwe lazamalamulo lomwe, pazinthu zina, lingakhale ndi mlandu payekha pazobweza zamakampani. Ngongole zingapo nthawi zambiri zimakhazikitsidwa ngati chitetezo pamgwirizano pakati pamapani. Lamulo lachithunzithunzi ndilakuti, ngati ntchito yomwe yachitika chifukwa cha mgwirizano itakhala ndi omwe ali ndi ngongole ziwiri kapena kupitilira apo, aliyense amakhala wodzipereka nawo gawo lofanana. Atha kungokakamizidwa kukwaniritsa gawo lawo la mgwirizano. Komabe, zovuta zingapo ndizosiyana ndi lamuloli. Pankhani ya ngongole zingapo, pali magwiridwe omwe amayenera kuchitidwa ndi omwe ali ndi ngongole ziwiri kapena zingapo, koma pomwe aliyense ali ndi ngongole angathe payekha kuchita zonse. Wokongoletsa amayenera kukwaniritsa mgwirizano wonse kuchokera kwa onse amene ali ndi ngongole. Chifukwa chake, wobwereketsa angasankhe yemwe ali ndi ngongole yomwe angafune kuyankha ndipo atha kufunsa ngongole yonse kuchokera kwa amene ali naye ngongole. Ngongole imodzi ikalipira ngongole yonse, amene ali naye mangawa alibe ngongole iliyonse.

1.1 Ufulu wothandizira

Omwe ali ndi ngongole amayenera kulipira wina ndi mnzake, choncho ngongole yomwe idalipira ngongole imodzi iyenera kuthetsedwa pakati pa onse omwe ali ndi ngongole. Uku kumatchedwa ufulu wofunsanso. Ufulu wobwerera ndi ufulu wa wobwereketsa kuti abweze zomwe walipira wina yemwe ali ndi mlandu. Ngati wokongoza ali ndi ngongole zonse zolipira ngongole ndipo amalipira ngongole yonse, amalandila ngongoleyo kuchokera kwa omwe ali nawo ngongole.

Ngati ngongole sikufunanso kukhala ndi ngongole zonse zandalama zomwe adalowetsa limodzi ndi omwe ali ndi ngongole, atha kupempha wobwereketsa kalata kuti amuletse ngongole zingapo. Chitsanzo cha izi ndi momwe wokongoza ngongole alowa mgwirizano la ngongole yolumikizana ndi mnzake, koma akufuna kusiya kampani. Pankhaniyi, kuchotsedwa kolemba ngongole zingapo kuyenera kupangidwa nthawi zonse ndi wokongoza; Kudzipereka pakamwa kuchokera kwa anzanu omwe mwapanga nawo ngongole kuti adzabweza ngongole sikokwanira. Ngati inu amene muli ndi ngongole simungathe kukwaniritsa kapena simukukwaniritsa mgwirizano wapakamwa, wobwereketsa akhoza kukufunsani ngongole yonse. 

1.2. Kufunika kwa chilolezo

The marital or registered partner of the debtor who is severally liable is protected by law. According to article 1:88 paragraph 1 sub c Dutch Civil Code, a spouse requires consent from the other spouse to enter into contracts that are binding on him as severally liable co-debtor, other than in the normal business activities of a company. This is the so-called requirement of consent. This article intents to protects spouses from legal actions that may entail a major financial risk. When a creditor holds a co-debtor severally liable for the entire claim, this can also have consequences for the spouse of the co-debtor. However, there is an exception on this requirement of consent. According to article 1:88 paragraph 5 Dutch Civil Code, consent is not required when the director of a public limited liability company or a private limited liability company (Dutch N.V. and B.V.) entered into an agreement, while this director is, alone or together with his co-directors, owner of the majority of the shares and if the agreement was concluded on behalf of the normal business activities of the company.  In this, there are two requirements that need to be fulfilled: the director is managing director and majority shareholder or owns a majority of the shares together with his co-directors ánd the agreement was concluded on behalf of the normal business activities of the company. When these requirements are not both met, the requirement of consent applies.

2. Kutuluka

Pomwe gulu likufuna chitetezo kuti ndalama zomwe zilipilidwa ziperekedwe, chitetezochi chitha kuperekedwanso ndi escrow.[1] Escrow achokera palemba 7: 850 Dutch Civil Code. Timalankhula za escrow pomwe wachitatu adzipereka kwa wokongoza mnzake pakudzipereka kuti mnzakeyo (amene ali ndi ngongole yayikulu) akwaniritse. Izi zimachitika pomaliza pangano la escrow. Gulu lachitatu lomwe limapereka chitetezo, limatchedwa guarantor. Wotsimikizira amatenga udindo kwa wokongoza ngongole wamkulu. Wotsimikizirayo sakuvomera ngongole yakeyake, koma ngongole ya gulu lina ndipo payekha amapereka chitetezo pakulipira ngongoleyi. Wotsimikizirayo ali ndi mlandu ndi chuma chake chonse. Escrow imatha kuvomerezedwa kuti ikwaniritse maudindo omwe alipo kale, komanso kukwaniritsa zoyenera kuchita mtsogolo. Potengera nkhani 7: 851 ndime 2 Dutch Civil Code, maudindo ali mtsogolo akuyenera kutsimikizika mokwanira panthawi yomwe escrow ithe. Ngati ngongole yayikulu ikhoza kukwaniritsa zomwe zalembedwa mgwirizanowu, wobwereketsa angathe kuyang'ana kwa wotsimikizira kuti akwaniritse izi. Malinga ndi nkhani 7: 851 Dutch Civil Code, escrow imadalira zomwe wokongoza yemwe adachita kuti escrow adamaliza. Chifukwa chake, escrow imaleka kukhalapo pomwe wokongoza akwaniritsa zomwe akufunikira kuchokera ku mgwirizano woyamba.

Wobwereketsa sangangolankhula ndi wotsimikizira kuti alipire ngongoleyo. Izi ndichifukwa choti mfundo yotchedwa subsidiarity imagwira gawo limodzi la escrow. Izi zikutanthauza kuti wokongoza ngongole sangathe kukakamira chitsimikiziro chake kuti walipira. Choyamba, wotsimikizirayo sangakhale ndi mlandu wolipirira ngongole yayikulu isanakwaniritse zomwe akukwaniritsa. Izi zikuchokera palemba 7: 855 Dutch Civil Code. Izi zikutanthauza kuti wotsimikizika angathe kuimbidwa mlandu ndi wobwereketsa pokhapokha wobwereketsa atalankhula koyamba ndi yemwe ali ndi ngongole yayikulu. Wobwereketsa ndalama ayenera kuti adachita zonse zofunikira kuti akhazikitse kuti wobwereketsa, yemwe wotsimikizirayo adadzipereka, walephera kukwaniritsa udindo wake wolipira. Mulimonsemo, wobwereketsa ayenera kutumiza zidziwitso zakusokonekera kwa wokongoza wamkulu. Pokhapokha ngati wokongoza wamkuluyo akulephera kutsatira lamulo lakubwezera atalandira chidziwitso chokhacho, wobwereketsa angayankhe kwa guarantor kuti alandire ngongole. Komabe, wotsimikizirayo alinso ndi mwayi woti adziteteze motsutsana ndi zomwe wokhulupirira angongole. Kufikira izi, ali ndi chitetezo chofananira chomwe ali ndi ngongole yayikulu, monga kuyimitsidwa, kuchotsedwa pamilandu kapena kupempha chisawawa. Izi zikuchokera palemba 7: 852 Dutch Civil Code.

2.1 Ufulu wothandizira

Wotsimikizira yemwe amalipira ngongole ya wokongoza ngongole, atha kubweza ngongoleyi kwa ngongole. Ufulu wothandizidwa motero umagwiranso ntchito pa escrow. Mu escrow, mawonekedwe apadera a ufulu wothandizawo amagwiranso ntchito, monga kudziyesa. Lamulo lalikulu ndikuti kufunsira kumatha kukhalanso pomwe kudaliridwako kulipidwa. Komabe, kuyamwa ndikusiyana ndi lamuloli. Pakuyamwa, zonena zimasinthidwa kukhala kwa mwini wake wina. Poterepa, chipani china kuposa wokongoza ngongole chimalipira zomwe wokongoza mnzake adachita. Mu escrow, kudzinenera kuti kulipidwa ndi wachitatu, yemwe ndi guarantor. Pakulipira ngongole, komabe, zonena motsutsana ndi wokongoza sizitayika, basi imasamutsidwa kuchokera kwa wobwereketsa kupita kwa guarantor yemwe adalipira ngongoleyo. Pambuyo pobweza ngongoleyo, wotsimikizirayo amatha kupita kukabweza ngongoleyo kwa amene wamupangira pangano la escrow. Kulembetsanso ndikutheka kokha pazochitika zomwe zimayendetsedwa ndi lamulo. Kulembetsa zokhudzana ndi escrow ndikotheka pamaziko 7: 866 Dutch Civil Code jo. nkhani 6:10 Code Lachi Dutch.

2.2 bizinesi ndi nyumba zazinsinsi 

Pali kusiyana pakati pa bizinesi ndi escrow wamba. Business escrow ndi escrow yomwe imamalizidwa pa ntchito yaukadaulo kapena bizinesi, escrow yapayokha ndi escrow yomwe imamalizidwa kunja kwa ntchito yaukadaulo kapena bizinesi. Bungwe lovomerezeka komanso munthu wachilengedwe akhoza kukhazikitsa mgwirizano wapadera. Zitsanzo za izi ndi kampani yogwirizira yomwe imamaliza mgwirizano ndi bank kuthandizira ndalama zomwe amapereka ndi makolo omwe amapanga pangano la escrow loti awonetsetse kuti ndalama za ngongole za mwana wawo ziperekedwa kubanki. Sikuti nthawi zonse escrow imayenera kumalizidwa m'malo mwa banki, ndizothekanso kulowa mapangano a escrow ndi ena obweza ngongole.

Nthawi zambiri zimakhala zodziwika bwino ngati bizinesi kapena scrow yapayokha idamalizidwa. Ngati kampani ilowa mgwirizano wa escrow, bizinesi ya escrow imatha. Ngati munthu wachilengedwe atalowa mgwirizano wa escrow, nthawi zambiri pamakhala mgwirizano wapadera. Komabe, kuvomerezedwa kumatha kuchitika ngati wotsogolera wa kampani yaying'ono yamakampani wamba kapena kampani yochepetsetsa yazinsinsi atamaliza mgwirizano wa escrow m'malo mwa bungwe lalamulo. Mutu 7: 857 Dutch Civil Code ikuphatikiza zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kudziyimira payekha: kumalizika kwa secrow ndi munthu wachilengedwe yemwe sanachite nawo ntchito yake, kapena machitidwe wamba a kampani yochepetsera anthu wamba kapena ngongole zochepa pazokha kampani. Komanso, wotsimikizira ayenera kukhala woyang'anira kampaniyo, yekha kapena ndiomwe akuwongolera, azigawana kwambiri. Pali zinthu ziwiri zofunika kuchita:

- wotsimikizira ndiye woyang'anira ndipo ambiri amakhala ndi magawo ambiri kapena amagawana nawo
- escrow imamalizidwa m'malo mwa zochitika wamba zamakampani.

Pochita izi, nthawi zambiri pamakhala woyang'anira wowongolera / ambiri omwe amalowa mu mgwirizano wa escrow. Woyang'anira / wothandizirana nawo ambiri amasankha momwe kampaniyo ingakhudzire kampaniyo, chifukwa mwina zitha kukhala kuti bankayo ​​safuna kupereka ndalama popanda kumaliza mgwirizano wa escrow. Kuphatikiza apo, mgwirizano wa escrow, wotsilizidwa ndi director director / ambiri olandila, uyeneranso kuti unatsimikizidwa kuti zitheke. Komabe, izi ndizosiyana pachikhalidwe chilichonse ndipo lamulo silimanena kuti 'zochitika wamba zabizinesi'. Kuti muwone ngati escrow yatsirizidwa pamalingaliro abwinobwino a bizinesi, momwe milanduyo iyenera kuunikiridwa. Njira zonsezi zikakwaniritsidwa, bizinesi yamalonda imamalizidwa. Woyang'anira yemwe amaliza escrow sakhala woyang'anira kapena wolandila zochulukitsa kapena escrow sanamalizidwe kuti akwaniritse zochitika wamba, scrow yakumapeto imamalizidwa.

Malamulo owonjezera amagwira ntchito pa escrow yaumwini. Lamuloli limateteza kwa wokwatirana naye kapena wolembetsedwa kwa wotsimikizira payekha. Zoyenera kuvomerezedwa zomwe zimagwiranso ntchito kwa escrow apadera. Malinga ndi nkhani 1:88 ndime 1 sub c Dutch Civil code, wokwatirana ayenera kuvomerezedwa ndi mnzake kuti achite nawo mgwirizano womwe akufuna kumumanga ngati chitsimikizo. Chilolezo cha mnzake wa guarantor chimafunikira kuti alowe nawo pachigwirizano chovomerezeka cha escrow. Komabe, nkhani 1:88 ndime 5 Dutch Civil Code ikutsimikizira kuti chilolezochi sichofunikira pomwe escrow imatsirizidwa ndi wotsimikizira bizinesi. Kutetezedwa kwa wokwatirana naye kwa guarantor kotero kumangogwirizana ndi mgwirizano wamseri.

3. Chitsimikizo

Chitsimikizo ndi mwayi wina wopeza chitetezo kuti zomwe akufuna zitalipiridwa. Chitsimikizo ndi ufulu wokhala ndi chitetezo chamunthu, pomwe wachitatu amatenga udindo wodziimira payekha kuti akwaniritse kudzipereka pakati pa wokongoza ndi wobwereketsa. Chitsimikizo chimaphatikizapo kuti wachitatuyo akutsimikizira kuti zomwe wakongoletsa akukwaniritsa ziyenera kukwaniritsidwa. Wotsimikizirayo amalipira ngongoleyo ngati ngongole sangathe kapena sangabweze.[2] Chitsimikizo sichimayendetsedwa ndi lamulo, koma chitsimikizo chimatsirizika mu mgwirizano pakati pa magulu.

3.1. Chowonjezera chitsimikiziro

Kusiyana kungapangike pakati pa mitundu iwiri ya chitsimikiziro kuti athe kupeza chitetezo; chitsimikiziro chowonjezera ndi chitsimikiziro choperewera. Chitsimikiziro chowonjezera chimadalira kuchokera pa ubale pakati pa wokongoza ndi wokongoza. Powona koyamba, chitsimikiziro chowonjezera ndi chofanana kwambiri ndi escrow. Komabe, kusiyana kwake ndikuti wotsimikizira za zomwe angakwanitse sadzipereka kuti azigwira ntchito yomweyo monga wokongoza ngongole, koma kukakamiza kwake komwe kuli ndi magawo ena. Chitsanzo chosavuta cha izi ndi pamene wotsimikizira adzipereka kuti apereke tomato kwa wokongoza, ngati wokongoza sangakwaniritse udindo wake wopereka mbatata. Pankhaniyi, zomwe zili m'manja mwa wotsimikizirazi ndizosiyana ndi zomwe akukakamizani kukhala ndi ngongole. Komabe, izi sizikulepheretsa kuwona kuti pali mgwirizano waukulu pakati pa zomwe awiriwo adachita. Chitsimikiziro chowonjezerapo ndichowonjezera ku ubale pakati pa wokongoza ndi wokongoza. Komanso, zowonjezera zowonjezera nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi ntchito ngati ukonde wachitetezo; pokhapokha ngati wokongoza wamkulu sangakwaniritse udindo wake, wotsimikizirayo amayitanidwa kuti achite zomwe adalonjeza.

Ngakhale chitsimikizo sichinatchulidwe momveka bwino m'lamulo, nkhani 7: 863 Dutch Civil Code sichimangotanthauza zofunikira zonse. Malinga ndi nkhaniyi, zopereka zokhudzana ndi mseri yazinsinsi zimagwiranso ntchito pamapangano omwe munthu amachita ntchito inayake munthu wina akadzalephera kutsatira zomwe akukakamiza kwa wokongoza mnzakeyo. Zomwe zimakhudzana ndi escrow yapayokha zimagwiranso ntchito pazotsimikizira zomwe zimatsimikiziridwa ndi munthu payekha.

3.2 Chitsimikizo

Kuphatikiza pa chitsimikizo chowonjezera, timadziwanso chitetezo chachuma chotsimikizika chotsimikizika. Mosiyana ndi chitsimikiziro chowonjezera, chitsimikizo chotsimikizika ndikudzipereka kotsimikizika kwa guarantor kupita kwa wokongoza. Chitsimikizo ichi sichimakhala chopanda tsankho kuchokera pachibwenzi chapakati pa wokongoza ndi wobwereketsa. Pankhani ya chitsimikizo chotsimikizika, chitsimikizo chimadzipereka chodzipereka kuti akwaniritse ngongole, ngati angakwanitse. Kuchita uku sikugwirizana ndi mgwirizano wapakati pa wokongoza ngongole ndi wobwereketsa. Chitsanzo chodziwika bwino chotsimikizika ndi chitsimikizo cha banki.

Chitsimikizo chotsiriza chikamalizidwa, wotsimikizirayo sangateteze ku chibwenzicho. Miyezo yotsimikizika ikakwaniritsidwa, wotsimikizira sangathe kuletsa kulipira. Izi ndichifukwa choti chitsimikizo chimachokera ku mgwirizano wina pakati pa wokongoza ndi guarantor. Izi zikutanthauza kuti wobwereketsa atha kuyankhulanso ndi wotsimikizira, osatumiza chizindikiritso cha wobwereketsa. Pomaliza chitsimikizo, wokongolayo amapeza chitsimikizo chachikulu kuti ngongoleyo imalipira iye. Kuphatikiza apo, guarantor alibe ufulu wakuyankha. Komabe, maphwando atha kuphatikiza njira zoteteza mu mgwirizano wotsimikizira. Mavuto azitsimikiziro zoyimilira sizichokera pamalamulo, koma akhoza kudzazidwa ndi maguluwo. Ngakhale wotsimikizirayo alibe ufulu wakuyenderanso molingana ndi malamulo, angathe kupezera njira zodzithandizira. Mwachitsanzo, chitsimikiziro chotsutsa chikhoza kutsirizidwa ndi wokongoza ngongole kapena chikalata chaumbanda chingapangidwe.

3.3 Chitsimikizo cha kampani ya makolo

In company law, a parent company guarantee is often concluded. A parent company guarantee entails that a parent company commits itself to comply with the obligations of a subsidiary of the same group if the subsidiary itself does not or cannot meet these obligations. Of course, this guarantee can only be agreed upon with companies that are part of a group or holding company. In principle, a group guarantee is an abstract guarantee. However, normally there is no ‘first pay, then talk’ concept, whereby the guarantor immediately pays the debt without checking in substance whether there exists a demandable  claim against the debtor. The reason for this is that the debtor is the subsidiary of the guarantor; the guarantor will want to check first if there is indeed a demandable claim. Nevertheless, a ‘first pay, then talk’ construction can be built into a guarantee agreement. After all, parties can structure the guarantee according to their own wishes. The parties must also determine whether the guarantee only encompasses a payment guarantee or whether the guarantee must also cover other obligations, and is therefore a performance guarantee. The scope, duration and conditions of the guarantee are also determined by the parties themselves. A parent company guarantee can provide a solution when the subsidiary goes bankrupt, but only if the parent company does not collapse together with its subsidiaries.

4. 403-mawu

Mu gulu la makampani, zomwe zimatchedwa 403-statement zimaperekedwanso. Izi zikuchokera palemba 2: 403 Dutch Civil Code. Popereka mawu 403, othandizira omwe ali mgululi sakhudzidwa ndi zolemba zawo zokha. M'malo mwake, akaunti yophatikizidwa pachaka imakonzedwa. Ili ndi akaunti ya pachaka ya makampani makolo, momwe zotsatira zonse za othandizira zimaphatikizidwira. Kapangidwe ka akaunti yophatikizidwa pachaka ndikuti ndalama zonse, ngakhale zimagwira ntchito modziyimira pawokha, pamapeto pake zimagonedwa ndi oyang'anira ndi kampani yoyang'anira. 403-statement ndi unilateral law Act, pomwe pakudzipereka kodziimira pakampani ya makolo. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mawu 403 ndi kudzipereka kopanda kudzipereka. Chiwonetsero cha 403 sichimangoperekedwa ndi magulu akulu apadziko lonse lapansi; magulu ang'ono, mwachitsanzo omwe ali ndi makampani awiri abwinobwino, atha kugwiritsa ntchito mawu 403. Mfundo 403 ziyenera kulembedwa mu Trade Register ya Chamber of Commerce. Mawu awa akuwonetsa kuti ngongole zandalama zomwe kampaniyi imalembera ndi kuyambira tsiku liti.

Mbali inayi ya mawuwo 403 ndikuti kampani ya makolo yomwe ili ndi mawuwa ikulengeza kuti ndi yomwe imayang'anira zomwe mabungwe awo amapereka. Kampani ya makolo ili ndi chindapusa cha ngongole zomwe zimachitika chifukwa chalamulo zabungwe lozithandizira. Zopindulitsa zingapo izi zikuphatikiza kuti wokongoza ngongole yemwe adapereka mawu 403 atha kusankha bungwe lomwe akufuna kuthana nalo pokwaniritsa zomwe akuti: kampani yomwe yamaliza mgwirizano woyamba kapena kampani ya kholo yomwe idapereka 403. Ndi ngongole zingapo izi, wokongoza amalipiridwa chifukwa chosamvetsetsa pazachuma chomwe amapereka mnzake. Pomwe mabizinesi omwe tawatchulawa amangokhala ndi ngongole kwa mnzake yemwe mgwirizano unatha, mawu a 403 amapangitsa kuti onse omwe ali ndi ngongole athandizidwe. Pangakhale ena obwereketsa omwe angayankhule ndi kampaniyo kuti akwaniritse zonena zawo. Mlandu womwe ungakhalepo kuchokera pamawu 403 ndiwofunika. Choipa cha izi ndikuti mawu a 403 akhoza kusokoneza gulu lonse pamene othandizira akukumana ndi mavuto azachuma. Wothandizira atasokonekera, gulu lonse litha.

4.1 Kubweza mawu 403

Ndizotheka kuti kampani ya makolo sikufunanso kukhala ndi ngongole pazobweza kapena ku zomwe amapereka. Izi zitha kukhala choncho pamene makampani makampani akufuna kugulitsa othandizira. Pofuna kuchotsa mawu a 403, njira yomwe ikuchokera palemba 2: 404 Dutch Civil Code ikuyenera kutsatiridwa. Njirayi imakhala ndi zinthu ziwiri. Choyamba, mawu 403 amayenera kuchotsedwa. Kulengeza kuchotsedwa kuyenera kuyikidwa mu Trade Register ya Chamber of Commerce. Izi zikutanthauza kuti kampani yothandizidwayo ilibe udindo uliwonse pakubwezera ndalama zothandizira kampaniyi. Komabe, malinga ndi nkhani yachiwiri: 2 ndime 404 Dutch Civil Code, kampani ya makolo ikhalabe ndi mangawa chifukwa cha milandu yomwe inalembedwa 2 isanachotsedwa. Mlanduwo umapitilizabe kukhala ndi ngongole zochokera m'mapangano omwe anamaliza atapereka mawu 403, koma asanapereke chilengezo chofuna kuchotsedwa. Izi ndikuti muteteze wokongoletsa, yemwe atha kukhala pachigwirizano ndikutsimikiza kwa mawuwo 403.

Komabe, ndizotheka kuthetsa ngongole zokhudzana ndi zochitika zamilandu zam'mbuyomu. Kuti tichite izi, njira zowonjezera, zochokera mulemba 2: 404 ndime 3 Dutch Civil Code, ziyenera kutsatiridwa. Mikhalidwe ingapo imagwira ntchito motere:

- othandizira sangakhalenso mgululi;
- chidziwitso cha cholinga chothetsa mawuwo 403 chiyenera kuti chinali chopezeka kuti chifufuzidwe ku Chamber of Commerce kwa miyezi yosachepera iwiri;
- osachepera miyezi iwiri ayenera kuti adadutsa chilengezochi atalengeza kuti achotse ntchito atayimitsidwa.

Kuphatikiza apo, omwe amabwereketsa ngongole akadali ndi mwayi wotsutsa cholinga chothetsa zomwe 403 zimanena. Mfundo 403 zimatha kutha kutsutsidwa ngati palibe wotsutsa kapena wosagwirizana ndi nthawi yake kapena wotsutsa ngati walengeza kuti ndi wosavomerezeka ndi woweruza. Pokhapokha ngati zifukwa zokwanira kubwezeretsa ndikuchotsa mawuwo 403 zikwaniritsidwe, kampaniyo siikhalanso ndi ngongole iliyonse pazobweza. Ndikofunikira kuti kubwezeretsa ndikuchotsa ntchitoyi kuchitike mosamala; ngati kuchotsedwa kapena kuchotsedwa sikunachitikebe bwino, kampani ya kholo ikhoza kukhalanso ndi mlandu wa ngongole zothandizira zomwe zakhala zikugulitsidwa zaka zapitazo.

5. Ngongole ndi chikole

Chitetezo cha zachuma chitha kupezekanso pokhazikitsa nyumba kapena chikole. Ngakhale mitundu iyi ya chitetezo zachuma imafanana kwambiri, pali zosiyana zingapo.

5.1. Ngongole

Ngongole yanyumba ndi chitetezo chazachuma chomwe maphwando anganene. Ngongole imakhala kuti chipani chimodzi chimapereka ngongole ku chipani china. Pambuyo pake, ngongole yanyumba imalembedwa kuti apeze chitetezo pazachuma pobweza ngongoleyi. Ngongole yanyumba ndi ufulu wokhala ndi katundu womwe ungakhazikitsidwe pokhudzana ndi katundu wa wobwereketsa. Ngati wokongoza sangakwanitse kubweza ngongole yake, wobwereketsa atha kufunsa nyumbayo kuti akwaniritse zomwe akufuna. Zitsanzo zodziwika bwino za kubweza ngongole ndi mwininyumba yemwe wavomera kubanki kuti banki imupatsa ngongole ndiye agwiritse ntchito nyumba yake ngati chitetezo pobweza ngongoleyo. Komabe, izi sizitanthauza kuti ngongole yanyumba ikhoza kukhazikitsidwa kokha kudzera kubanki. Makampani ena komanso anthu ena amathanso kumalizitsa ngongole yanyumba. Matchulidwe mu ngongole zanyumba atha kukhala osokoneza. M'malankhulidwe abwinoko, phwando, mwachitsanzo, banki, limapereka ngongole kwa chipani china. Komabe, kuchokera pakuwona mwalamulo, wobwereketsa ndi amene amapereka ngongole, pomwe phwando lomwe limapereka ngongole ndiomwe amakhala. Bankiyo ndiye imasunga ngongole ndipo munthu amene akufuna kugula nyumba ndi yemwe amapereka ngongole yanyumba.

Khalidwe la chanyumba ndi chakuti ngongole zanyumba sizingathe kumangidwa pachilichonse; malinga ndi nkhani 3: 227 Dutch Civil Code, ngongole yanyumba ikhoza kukhazikitsidwa kokha pazinthu zolembedwa. Malo olembetsedwa akagulitsidwa, kuperekako kuyenera kulembetsedwera m'marejista aboma. Pokhapokha kulembetsa kumeneku, malo olembetsedwa amapezedwa ndi wogula. Zitsanzo za malo olembetsedwa ndi malo, nyumba, mabwato ndi ndege. Galimoto si lolembetsedwa. Kuphatikiza apo, ngongole yanyumba ikhoza kukhazikitsidwa kokha kuti ipindule ndi 'chidziwitso chokwanira'. Izi zikuchokera palemba 3: 231 Dutch Civil Code. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ziyenera kukhala zowona bwino pofotokoza kuti ngongole yomwe yakhazikitsidwa ndiyotani. Ngati wobwereketsa ali ndi ziwonetsero ziwiri motsutsana ndi wokongoza, ziyenera kukhala zowonekera pofotokoza kuti ndi ziti mwa zomwe awiriwo amati ufulu wobwereketsa waperekedwa. Komanso, mwini wake wa nyumbayo yomwe kukhazikitsidwa nyumba yake ukhazikikebe; umwini sudutsa atakhazikitsa ufulu wobweza. Ngongole nthawi zonse imakhazikitsidwa ndikupereka chikalata chovomerezeka.

Ngati wokongoza sangakwaniritse udindo wake wolipirira, wobwereketsa angathe kugwiritsa ntchito ufulu wake wogulitsa ngongoleyo mwakugulitsa malowo m'malo mwake momwe nyumba yomwe idakhazikitsidwira idakhazikitsidwa. Palibe lamulo laku khothi lofunikira pa izi. Izi zimatchedwa kuphedwa kumene ndipo zimachokera mulemba 3: 268 Dutch Civil Code. Ndikofunika kukumbukira kuti wobwereketsa amangogulitsa malowo kuti akwaniritse zomwe amafuna; sangayene malowo. Kuletsa uku kunanenedwa momveka bwino mu nkhani 3: 235 Dutch Civil Code. Chofunikira kwambiri pobweza ngongole ndichakuti obweza ngongole amayang'ana kwambiri okongoletsa ena omwe akufuna kutenga malowa kuti akwaniritse zonena zawo. Izi zikugwirizana ndi nkhani 3: 227 Dutch Civil Code. Panthawi yomwe bankili imasungidwa, wobwereketsa ndalama sayenera kuganizira za anzawo omwe atenga ngongole, koma akhoza kungogwiritsa ntchito molondola ngongole yake yobweza. Ndiye woyamba kubwereketsa ndalama yemwe angakwaniritse zomwe amafuna ndi phindu kuchokera kugulitsa nyumba lolembetsedwa.

5.2. Lonjezo

Ufulu wachitetezo womwe ungafanane ndi ngongole ndi chikole. Mosiyana ndi ngongole, chikole sichikhazikitsidwa pachuma chosasunthika. Komabe, chikhazikitso chitha kukhazikitsidwa pafupifupi pa katundu wina aliyense, monga katundu wosunthidwa, ufulu wokhala nawo kapena dongosolo komanso ngakhale mutagwiritsa ntchito katunduyo kapena ufulu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti chikhazikitso chikhoza kukhazikitsidwa pamagalimoto onse komanso pazambiri zomwe mungalandire kuchokera kwa omwe ali ndi ngongole. Wobwereketsa amakhazikitsa chikole kuti ateteze zomwe akufuna kuti zilipiridwe. Pangano lidzakwaniritsidwa pakati pa wokongoza ngongole (wopereka chikole) ndi wobwereketsa (wopereka chikole). Ngati wokongoza sangachite mogwirizana ndi zomwe walipira, wobwereketsa amakhala ndi ufulu wogulitsa malowo ndi kukwaniritsa zomwe amafuna ndi phindu lake. Wobweza akasiya kutsatira zomwe walipira, wobwereketsa amatha kugulitsa nyumbayo nthawi yomweyo. Malinga ndi nkhani 3: 248 Dutch Civil Code, palibe khothi lomwe limafunikira kuti izi zitheke, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kuphedwa nthawi yomweyo kumagwira ntchito. Zofanana ndi ngongole yanyumba, wobwereketsa saloledwa kuvomereza malo omwe ufulu wa lonjezo umaperekedwa; angogulitsa malowo ndikungokwaniritsa zokhumba zake ndi phindu. Izi zikuchokera palemba 3: 235 Dutch Civil Code. Mwakutero, wobwereketsa yemwe ali ndi ufulu wolonjeza amakhala ndi mwayi wopitilira ngongole ena ngati abisa kapena ayimitsidwa kulipira. Komabe, zitha kukhala ndi vuto ngati chikole chaumboni kapena chosavomerezeka chatsirizidwa.

5.2.1 Chikole cha possessory ndi chikole chosadziwika

Lonjezo laumwini limamalizidwa pamene nyumbayo 'ikuyang'aniridwa ndi wopereka chikole kapena wachitatu'. Izi zikuchokera palemba 3: 236 Dutch Civil Code. Izi zikutanthauza kuti katundu wolonjezedwayo amasamutsidwa kwa wokongoza; wobwereketsa amakhala ndi malo m'manja mwake panthawi yomwe wolonjezayo akhazikika. Lonjezo lokhazikitsidwa limakhazikitsidwa pobweretsa zabwino zomwe zikuyang'aniridwa ndi wobwereketsa. Wobwereketsa ayenera kusamalira nyumbayo ndipo mwina akuwongolera. Ndalama zokonza ziyenera kubwezeredwa ndi wobwereketsa.

Kuphatikiza pa lumbiro laumboni, tili ndi lonjezo losavomerezeka, lomwe limanenedwanso kuti chikole monga cholowa. Izi zikugwirizana ndi nkhani 3: 237 Dutch Civil Code. Ngati chikole chosadziwika chikakhazikitsidwa, malowo samayang'aniridwa m'manja mwa wobwereketsa, koma chikalata chonena kuti chobisika sichikhazikitsidwa. Uwu ukhoza kukhala chikalata cha notarial komanso chikalata chaumwini. Komabe, chikalata chazokha chikuyenera kulembetsedwa ku notary kapena kwa msonkho. Malonjezo osagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi makampani omwe amafuna kukhazikitsa lonjezo pamakina. Ngati makinawo akanakhala kuti abweretsedwa ndi amene wamukongoza, kampaniyo imalephera kuchita ntchito zake.

Lonjezo lokhala ndi ufulu limapereka ufulu wolimba kuposa lumbiro losadziwika. Ngati chikole chaumboni chikaperekedwa, wobwereketsa amakhala ndi malowo kale. Izi sizili choncho pamene chikole chosadziwika chikakhazikitsidwa. Zikatero, wokongoza mnzake ayenera kukakamiza amene ali ndi ngongole kuti apereke katunduyo. Kodi ngongole ikakana izi, zingakhale zofunika kukakamiza kufalitsa uthenga wabwino kudzera m'khothi. Kusiyana kwa lumbiro loyenera kukhala ndi chikole chomwe sichinasungidweko kumathandizanso kuti bankirapuse komanso kuyimitsidwa pakubweza. Monga tafotokozera kale, wokongoza ali ndi ufulu kuphedwa nthawi yomweyo; angathe kugulitsa malowo nthawi yomweyo kuti akwaniritse zomwe akufuna. Komanso, omwe amasunga chikole amayang'ana kwambiri kuposa onse omwe ali ndi ngongole kubanki. Komabe, pali kusiyana pakati pa lumbiro lokhala ndi chikole ndi lonjezo losasankhidwa. Omwe ali ndi chikole chomwe ali nacho amakhala ndi chidwi kuposa oyang'anira msonkho pomwe wobwereketsa atawonongeka. Omwe ali ndi chikole chosadziwika sakhala oyang'anira msonkho; ufulu wa oyang'anira msonkho umapambana ufulu wa yemwe ali ndi chikole chosaululika pakubweza kwa yemwe ali ndi ngongole. Lonjezo lokhala ndi chuma limapereka chitetezo chambiri nthawi yobisika kuposa lumbiro losadziwika.

6. Kutsiliza

Izi pamwambazi zikuphatikizapo kuti pali njira zingapo zopezera chitetezo chachuma: zovuta zingapo, escrow, (kampani ya makolo) chitsimikizo, 403-statement, ngongole yanyumba ndi chikole. Mwakutero, chitetezo ichi nthawi zonse chimafotokozedwa muchigwirizano. Zachitetezo zina zandalama zitha kupangidwa mwanjira yopanda mawonekedwe, malinga ndi zofuna za maphwando omwewo, pomwe mabungwe ena azachuma amayendetsedwa ndi malamulo. Zotsatira zake, njira zosiyanasiyana zachuma zonse zimakhala ndi zabwino komanso zovuta. Izi zikugwira ntchito kwa onse mbali yomwe imafuna chitetezo komanso chipani chomwe chimapereka chitetezo. Zachitetezo zina zachuma zimapereka chitetezo chochuluka kwa wokongoza kuposa ena, koma amabwera ndi zovuta zina. Kutengera ndi momwe zinthu ziliri, njira yoyenera yachitetezo ikhoza kutha pakati pa magulu.

[1] Escrow nthawi zambiri imatchedwa chitsimikizo. Komabe, pansi pa malamulo achi Dutch, pali mitundu iwiri yazitetezo zomwe zimamasulira kuti zitsimikizire m'Chingerezi. Kuti nkhaniyi isamveke, mawu akuti escrow adzagwiritsidwa ntchito pazachuma ichi.

[2] Mawu akuti 'guarantor' amatchulidwa onse mu escrow ndi chitsimikizo. Komabe, tanthauzo la mawuwa limatengera ufulu wakhudzidwa.

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