Maganizo ndi zina: zomwe muyenera kudziwa

Mukamagula china chake m'sitolo - ngakhale musanakhale ndi mwayi wolipira pakompyuta - nthawi zambiri mumafunsidwa kuti muwonetse bokosi lomwe mumalengeza kuti mukugwirizana ndi zomwe zigulitsidwe. Ngati muyika chikhomo m'bokosilo musanawerenge zofunikira zonse, ndinu amodzi mwa ambiri; palibe amene amawawerenga asanakwane. Komabe, izi ndizowopsa. Migwirizano ndi zikhalidwe zitha kukhala zosasangalatsa. Zikhalidwe ndi zikhalidwe zonse, zikukhudzana ndi chiyani?

Migwirizano ndi zikhalidwe nthawi zambiri zimatchedwa zolemba zazing'ono zamgwirizano

Muli malamulo ndi malangizo owonjezera omwe amagwirizana ndi mgwirizano. Mu Dutch Civil Code munthu atha kupeza malamulo omwe ayenera kukumana nawo kapena zomwe sangayankhe.

Mutu 6: 231 gawo lokhazikika la Dutch Civil Code limapereka tanthauzo latsatanetsatane la magawo ndi mikhalidwe:

«Amodzi kapena angapo Akumakambirananso zomwe zimapangidwa kuti ziphatikizidwe mumapangano angapo, kupatula Akumakambirananso kuthana ndi zoyambira za panganolo, kufikira momwe zomalizirazo zili zomveka komanso zomveka bwino ».

Poyamba, zaluso. 6: 231 ndogo ya Dutch Civil Code idalankhula za zigawo zolembedwa. Komabe, pakukhazikitsa Regulation 2000/31 / EG, pochita ndi e-commerce, mawu oti «olembedwa» adachotsedwa. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mawu ndi mikhalidwe yanthawi zonse amavomerezeka.

Lamuloli limakamba za «wosuta» ndi «chipani chotsutsa». Wogwiritsa ntchitoyo ndi amene amagwiritsa ntchito mawu ndi mgwirizano mu mgwirizano (art. 6: 231 sub b of the Dutch Civil Code). Nthawi zambiri ndi amene amagulitsa katundu. Chipani chotsutsana ndi amene, posainira chikalata cholembedwa kapena mwanjira ina, chikutsimikizira kuti wavomereza mawu ndi zofunikira (art 6: 231 sub c of the Dutch Civil Code).

Zomwe zimadziwika kuti mgwirizanowu sizigwirizana ndi malamulo ovomerezeka. Izi siziri gawo la zomwe zimachitika. Izi ndi zomwe zimachitika pomwe magawo amapanga gwero la mgwirizano. Ngati zikuphatikizidwa mu malamulo ndi zochitika zina, sizovomerezeka. Mbali yayikulu ikukhudzana ndi mgwirizano womwe ndi wofunikira kwambiri mwakuti popanda iwo mgwirizano sukanakwaniritsidwa kuti cholinga chololeza panganolo sichingatheke.

Zitsanzo za mitu yomwe ikupezeka pazinthu zikuluzikulu ndiyakuti: malonda omwe agulitsidwa, mtengo wotsutsana nawo uyenera kulipira komanso mtundu kapena kuchuluka kwa zinthu zomwe zagulitsidwa / zogulidwa.

Cholinga cha kayendetsedwe kazovomerezeka ka zigawo zikuluzikulu zowirikiza katatu:

  • Kulimbikitsa chiwongolero pazomwe zili munthawi ndi malamulo oteteza (maphwando) omwe zigwirizano zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, makamaka ogula.
  • Kupereka chitetezo chokwanira mwalamulo zokhudzana ndi kugwiriridwa ndi (kusavomerezeka) kovomerezeka ndi mawu ndi zinthu zina.
  • Kulimbikitsa kukambirana pakati pa ogwiritsa ntchito zikhalidwe zonse komanso mwachitsanzo zipani zomwe zikufuna kukonza zofuna za iwo, monga mabungwe ogula.

Ndibwino kudziwitsa kuti malamulo azokhudza magawo onse samagwire ntchito mgwirizanowu, mapangano ogwira nawo ntchito ndi zochitika zamayiko ena.

Nkhani ikakhudzana ndi zomwe zimafunikira kubwalo lamilandu, wogwiritsa ntchitoyo akuyenera kutsimikizira zovomerezeka. Mwachitsanzo, angafotokozere kuti zomwe zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito kale m'magulu ena. Mfundo yayikulu pakuweruza ndikuti zipani zake zimatha kutsatira zigamulo ndi zomwe zimayembekezera kwa wina ndi mnzake. Ngati mukukayika, mapangidwe omwe ali abwino kwambiri kwa ogula amapambana (zojambula. 6: 238 gawo lachiwiri la Dutch Civil Code).

Wogwiritsa ntchito amakakamizidwa kudziwitsa gulu lachipani za mawu ndi zikhalidwe (zojambula 6: 234 ya Dutch Civil Code). Atha kukwaniritsa izi pomupatsa mzake maphwando (zojambula 6: 234 gawo 1 la Dutch Civil Code). Wogwiritsa ntchitoyo ayenera kutsimikizira kuti anachita izi. Kupereka zomwe sizingatheke, wosuta ayenera, pangano lisanakhazikitsidwe, adziwitse gulu lomwe likutsutsa kuti pali zambiri zomwe zingapezeke ndikuwerenga, mwachitsanzo ku Chamber of Commerce kapena kwa oyang'anira makhothi (art 6: 234 gawo 1 la Dutch Civil Code) kapena atha kuwatumiza pagululo.

Izi zikuyenera kuchitika nthawi yomweyo komanso pamitengo ya wogwiritsa ntchito. Ngati sichoncho khotilo lingalengeze zonse zomwe sizingachitike (art. 6: 234 ya Dutch Civil Code), bola ngati wogwiritsa ntchitoyo angathe kukwaniritsa izi. Kupereka mwayi wogwirizana ndi momwe zinthu ziliri komanso zofunikira zitha kuchitidwa pakompyuta. Izi zimakhazikika mu zaluso. 6: 234 gawo 2 ndi 3 la Dutch Civil Code. Mulimonsemo, kuperekera zamagetsi kumaloledwa pamene mgwirizano unakhazikitsidwa pakompyuta.

Pakaperekedwa ndalama zamagetsi, gulu lotsutsa liyenera kusunga zonse zomwe lingachitike ndipo lipatsidwe nthawi yokwanira kuti liwerenge. Mgwirizanowu usakhazikike pakompyuta, wotsutsa ayenera kugwirizana ndi kuperekedwa kwa zamagetsi (art 6: 234 clause 3 of the Dutch Civil Code).

Kodi malamulo omwe afotokozedwa pamwambapa ndi otopetsa? Kuchokera pa chigamulo cha Khothi Lalikulu la Dutch (ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2977: Geurtzen / Kampstaal) titha kudziwa kuti malamulowo anali oti atha kukhala othetsa ntchito. Komabe, pakusintha kwawo Khothi Lalikulu lokha likutsutsa lingaliro ili. M'masinthidwe akuti munthu akaganiza kuti mnzakeyo akudziwa kapena akuyembekezeka kudziwa zigamulo ndi zina zonse, kunena mawu osavomerezeka sichinthu chosankha.

Dutch Civil Code siyikunena zomwe ziyenera kuphatikizidwa muzinthu zina, koma likunena zomwe sizingaphatikizidwe. Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, izi ndi zina mwa zina zomwe zili pachigwirizano, monga chinthu chomwe chagulidwa, mtengo ndi nthawi ya mgwirizano. Kuphatikiza apo, a mndandanda wakuda ndi mndandanda wazimvi amagwiritsidwa ntchito poyeza (art. 6: 236 ndi art. 6: 237 ya Dutch Civil Code) yomwe ili ndi zigawo zopanda nzeru. Tiyenera kudziwa kuti mindandanda yakuda ndi ya imvi imagwira ntchito pomwe zigwirizano ndi mgwirizano wamakampani ndi wogula (B2C).

The mndandanda wakuda (art.6: 236 ya Dutch Civil Code) ili ndi zigawo zomwe, zikaphatikizidwa pazinthu ndi zochitika, sizimadziwika kuti ndizovomerezeka ndi malamulo.

Mndandanda wakuda uli ndi magawo atatu:

  1. Malamulo omwe amalepheretsa gulu lochita nawo ufulu komanso kupikisana nawo. Chitsanzo ndi kufooka kwa ufulu wakwanilitsidwa (zojambula. 6: 236 sub a Dutch Civil Code) kapena kupatula kapena kuletsa ufulu wothetsa mgwirizano (art 6: 236 sub b of the Dutch Civil Code).
  2. Malangizo omwe amapatsa wogwiritsa ntchito ufulu wowonjezera kapena luso. Mwachitsanzo, mawu a chilolezo omwe amalola wogwiritsa ntchito kukweza mtengo wazogulitsa patatha miyezi itatu atalowa nawo panganoli, pokhapokha ngati wotsutsa angalole kuti athetse mgwirizanowu pamenepa (art 6: 236 sub i of the Dutch Civil) Code).
  3. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya maumboni osiyanasiyana amaumboni (art 6: 236 sub k of the Dutch Civil Code). Mwachitsanzo, kupitiliza kokha kwalembetsa pajambulani kapena nthawi, popanda njira yolondola yolembetsa kulembetsa (art.6: 236 sub p ndi q ya Dutch Civil Code).

The mndandanda wazimvi Zokhudza malamulo ndi zinthu zina (art.6: 237 ya Dutch Civil Code) ili ndi malamulo omwe, akaphatikizidwa pazinthu ndi zochitika, amawerengedwa kuti ndi olemetsa mopanda tanthauzo. Amagawo awa sikuti amatanthauzira molakwika.

Zitsanzo za izi ndi zigawo zomwe zimakhudza malire omwe munthu ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito polimbana ndi mnzakeyo (luso. 6: 237 sub b of the Dutch Civil Code), mawu omwe amalola wogwiritsa ntchito nthawi yayitali kuti akwaniritse mgwirizano ( art 6: 237 sub e of the Dutch Civil Code) kapena zigawo zomwe zimapangitsa kuti chipani kuti chithe nthawi yayitali kusiyana ndi wogwiritsa ntchito (art. 6: 237 sub l of the Dutch Civil Code).

Lumikizanani

Ngati mungakhale ndi mafunso ena kapena ndemanga mukatha kuwerenga nkhaniyi, omasuka kulumikizana ndi Mr. Maxim Hodak, woweruza milandu ku Law & More kudzera pa maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl kapena Mr. Tom Meevis, loya wa ku Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl kapena tiimbireni pa + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

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