Mavuto a oyang'anira ku The Netherlands

Introduction

Kuyambitsa kampani yanuyanu ndi ntchito yabwino kwa anthu ambiri ndipo amabwera ndi maubwino angapo. Komabe, zomwe (zamtsogolo) zamalonda zimawoneka kuti sizinyalanyaza, ndikuti kuyambitsa kampani kumabweretsanso zovuta komanso zoopsa. Kampani ikakhazikitsidwa mwanjira yovomerezeka, chiwopsezo cha owongolera chimakhalapo.

Bungwe lalamulo ndi bungwe lovomerezeka lovomerezeka ndi umunthu wovomerezeka. Chifukwa chake, bungwe lalamulo limatha kuchita zinthu zovomerezeka. Kuti izi zitheke, bungwe lalamulo lifunika kuthandizidwa. Popeza bungwe lalamulo limangokhala pakapepala, silingagwire ntchito lokha. Bungwe lalamulo liyenera kuyimiriridwa ndi munthu wachilengedwe. Mwakutero, bungwe lalamulo limayimiriridwa ndi gulu la owongolera. Oyang'anira atha kuchita zalamulo m'malo mwa mabungwe azovomerezeka. Wotsogolera amangomanga bungwe lalamulo ndi izi. Mwakutero, wotsogolera sakhala ndi ngongole pazobweza zamabungwe azovomerezeka ndi zinthu zake. Komabe, nthawi zina zovuta za owongolera zitha kuchitika, chifukwa chake wotsogolera adzakhala ndi mlandu payekha. Pali mitundu iwiri ya udindo wa owongolera: udindo wamkati ndi kunja. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza zifukwa zingapo zoyang'anira atsogoleri.

Mlandu wamkati mwa owongolera

Zovuta zamkati zimatanthauza kuti wotsogolera adzayimbidwa mlandu ndi bungwe lokhalo lokha. Zovuta zamkati zimachokera munkhani 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Wotsogolera amatha kudziimbidwa mlandu pakadakwaniritsa ntchito zake mosayenera. Kukwaniritsidwa molakwika kwa ntchito kumaganiziridwa ngati mlandu waukulu ungaperekedwe kwa wotsogolera. Izi zachokera pa nkhani 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Kuphatikiza apo, wotsogolera mwina sangakhale wakunyalanyaza pochita zinthu popewa kuwongolera kosayenera. Ndi liti pamene timalankhula za kunenezedwa kwakukulu? Malinga ndi lamulo lamilandu, izi ziyenera kuwunikidwa poganizira zochitika zonse pamlanduwo. [1]

Kuchita mosemphana ndi zolemba za bungwe lalamulo amadziwika kuti ndizovuta kwambiri. Ngati ndi choncho, udindo wa owongolera udzaganiziridwa. Komabe, wotsogolera akhoza kubweretsa zowona komanso zochitika zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti kuchita zosemphana ndi zomwe zidaphatikizidwazo sikubweretsa mlandu waukulu. Ngati ndi choncho, woweruzayo akuyenera kuphatikizaponso izi pakuweruza kwake. [2]

Milandu ingapo yamkati ndi chowonjezera

Zoyenera kutengera ndi mutu 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code ikuti pamalangizo onse owongolera ali ndi milandu yonse. Chifukwa chake milandu ikuluikulu oweruza onse adzapatsidwa. Komabe, pali chosiyana ndi lamuloli. Wotsogolera akhoza kudzipereka yekha (kuchokera pazowonjezera) pakulakwitsa kwa owongolera. Kuti achite izi, wotsogolera akuyenera kuwonetsa kuti sangamuimbe mlandu ndikuti sanakhale wonyalanyaza pakuchitapo kanthu pofuna kupewa kasamalidwe koyenera. Izi zikuchokera palemba 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Pempho lakunyinyirika silivomerezedwa mosavuta. Wowongolera akuyenera kuwonetsa kuti adatenga zonse mwa mphamvu zake kuti apewe kuyendetsa bwino. Cholemetsa chaumboni chagona kwa woyang'anira.

Kugawidwa kwa ntchito m'bungwe la owongolera kumatha kukhala kofunikira kudziwa ngati director ali ndi udindo kapena ayi. Komabe, ntchito zina zimawerengedwa kuti ndizofunikira kwa owongolera onse. Atsogoleri akuyenera kudziwa zina ndi zina. Kugawidwa kwa ntchito sikusintha izi. Kwenikweni, kusachita bwino sikuli chifukwa chodzichitira. Atsogoleri amayembekezeka kudziwitsidwa bwino ndikufunsa mafunso. Komabe, nthawi zina zitha kuchitika zomwe sizingayembekezeredwe kwa director. [3] Chifukwa chake, ngati director atha kudzilimbitsa yekha, zimadalira zenizeni komanso momwe zinthu zilili.

Ngongole zakunja kwa owongolera

Ngongole zakunja zimabweretsa kuti wotsogolera ali ndi udindo woloza nawo ena. Ngongole zakunja zimaboola chophimba. Bungwe lalamulo silitchinjiriza anthu achilengedwe omwe akuwongolera. Zoyenera kuvomerezedwa ndi owongolera zakunja ndizoyang'anira zosayenera, kutengera nkhani 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi nkhani 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (mkati mwa bankirapuse) ndi mchitidwe wozunzidwa kutengera nkhani 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code (kunja kwa bankirapuse ).

Zowongolera zakunja kwa owongoletsa mkati mwa bankrupt

Zovuta za owongolera zakunja mkati mwa bankirapuse zimagwiranso ntchito kumakampani omwe ali ndi ngongole zochepa (Dutch BV ndi NV). Izi zikuchokera palemba 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Oyang'anira akhoza kuimbidwa mlandu chifukwa bankirapuse idayambitsidwa chifukwa cha kusayang'anira kapena zolakwa za bolodi la otsogolera. Curator, yemwe akuimira onse omwe atenga ngongole, akuyenera kufufuza kuti awongolere ngati awongoleredwe.

Ngongole zakunja za bankirapuse zitha kuvomerezedwa ngati bungwe la owongolera likwaniritsa mosayenera ntchito zake ndipo kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera kumeneku ndiye chifukwa chofunikira kwambiri cha bankirapuse. Kulemera kwaumboni ponena za kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera kwa ntchito kuli kwa woyang'anira; akuyenera kupanga zomveka kuti wotsogolera woganiza bwino, munthawi yomweyi, sakadachita izi. [4] Zochita zomwe zimasokoneza omwe amabweza ngongole zimabweretsa kasamalidwe kosayenera. Kuzunzidwa ndi owongolera kuyenera kupewedwa.

Woyimira nyumba yamalamulo waphatikizira malingaliro ena aumboni m'ndime 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code ndi Article 2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Bungwe la oyang'anira likapanda kutsatira 2:10 Dutch Civil Code kapena 2: 394 Dutch Civil Code, lingaliro laumboni limabuka. Poterepa, akuganiza kuti kuwongolera kosayenera kwakhala chinthu chofunikira kwambiri pakuwonongeka. Izi zimasunthira katundu waumboni kwa wotsogolera. Komabe, owongolera amatha kutsutsa malingaliro aumboni. Kuti achite izi, wotsogolera ayenera kupanga zowona kuti bankirapuse sanayambitsidwe ndi kuwongolera kosayenera, koma ndi zina komanso zochitika zina. Wotsogolera akuyeneranso kuwonetsa kuti sananyalanyaze kuchitapo kanthu pofuna kupewa kuwongolera kosayenera. [5] Kuphatikiza apo, woyang'anira akhoza kungopereka chiphaso kwa zaka zitatu asanafike bankirapuse. Izi zimachokera munkhani 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code ndi Article 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Milandu ingapo yakunja ndi kudalirana

Woyang'anira aliyense ali ndi udindo waukulu pakuwongolera kosayenera mu bankirapuse. Komabe, owongolera amatha kuthawa ngongole zingapo izi podzikweza. Izi zimachokera ku Article 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code ndi Article 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Wowongolera akuyenera kutsimikizira kuti kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera kwa ntchito sikungamutsutse. Akhozanso kukhala kuti sananyalanyaze kuchitapo kanthu kuti apewe zovuta zakusakwaniritsidwa kwa ntchito. Kulemera kwa umboni posangalatsidwa kuli ndi wotsogolera. Izi zimachokera pazolemba zomwe zatchulidwa pamwambapa ndipo zimakhazikitsidwa pamilandu yaposachedwa ya Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch. [6]

Ngongole zakunja zochokera pakuzunza

Oyang'anira amathanso kuimbidwa mlandu chifukwa chozunza, zomwe zimachokera palemba 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code. Nkhaniyi imapereka zifukwa zambiri zangongole. Milandu yowongolera potengera chizunzo chimatha kupemphedwa ndi munthu amene mwamukongoletsa.

Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch limasiyanitsa mitundu iwiri yamilandu ya owongolera potengera zomwe amachita. Choyamba, ngongole zitha kuvomerezedwa pamiyeso ya Beklamel. Poterepa, director adachita mgwirizano ndi wachitatu m'malo mwa kampaniyo, pomwe amadziwa kapena moyenera amayenera kumvetsetsa kuti kampaniyo silingakwaniritse zomwe zikuchokera mgwirizanowu. [7] Mtundu wachiwiri wachinyengo ndikukhumudwitsa pazinthu. Poterepa, director adayambitsa kuti kampaniyo sikulipira omwe adalemba ngongole ndipo ikulephera kukwaniritsa zomwe amamulipira. Zochita za director ndizosasamala, kotero kuti akumuneneza kwambiri. [8] Mtolo waumboni mu izi ndi kwa wobwereketsa.

Mlandu wa oyang'anira bungwe lalamulo

Ku Netherlands, munthu wachilengedwe komanso bungwe lazovomerezeka likhoza kukhala wotsogolera bungwe lazovomerezeka. Kupangitsa zinthu kukhala zosavuta, munthu wachilengedwe yemwe ndi wotsogolera azitchedwa director director ndipo bungwe lalamulo lomwe ndi director director limatchedwa director director mundime iyi. Sikuti bungwe lalamulo likhoza kukhala wotsogolera, sizitanthauza kuti udindo wa owongolera ukhoza kupewedwa mwa kusankha bungwe lovomerezeka ngati director. Izi zikuchokera pamutu 2:11 Dutch Civil Code. Wotsogolera bungwe akakhala kuti ali ndi mlandu, chiwongolero ichi chimagwiritsidwanso ntchito ndi owongolera zachilengedwe a director director.

Article 2:11 Dutch Civil Code imagwiranso ntchito pomwe owongolera amakayikira kutengera nkhani 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code, Article 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi Article 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Komabe, panali mafunso ngati nkhani ya 2:11 Dutch Civil Code imagwiranso ntchito pazovuta za owongolera potengera zomwe amachita. Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch laganiza kuti izi zilidi choncho. Pachigamulochi, Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch likuloza mbiri yalamulo. Article 2:11 Dutch Civil Code ikufuna kuteteza anthu achilengedwe kubisala kumbuyo kwa owongolera mabungwe kuti apewe zovuta. Izi zikuphatikiza kuti nkhani ya 2:11 Dutch Civil Code imagwira ntchito pamilandu yonse yomwe wowongolera mabungwe angayimbidwe mlandu malinga ndi lamulo. [9]

Kutaya kwamabungwe owongolera

Zowongolera zomwe owongolera atha kubweza zitha kupulumutsidwa ndikupereka zotulutsira komiti ya owongolera. Kutulutsa kumatanthawuza kuti ndondomeko ya gulu la owongolera, momwe ikuchitidwira mpaka mphindi yakuchotsedwa, ivomerezedwa ndi bungwe lalamulo. Kutulutsa ndikuchotsa zovuta pazomwe akuwongolera. Kutulutsa si nthawi yomwe ingapezeke pamalamulo, koma nthawi zambiri imaphatikizidwa pazophatikiza zophatikizika zovomerezeka. Kutulutsa ndikutchingira mkati. Chifukwa chake, kutulutsa kumangogwira ntchito pakubweza kwamkati. Zipani zachitatu zimatha kudzetsa owongolera.

Kutulutsa kumangokhudza zowona ndi zochitika zomwe zimadziwika ndi omwe ali ndi masheya panthawi yomwe amalandila. [10] Zovuta pazinthu zosadziwika zidzakhalapobe. Chifukwa chake, kutulutsa sikutetezedwa kwathunthu ndipo sikumapereka chitsimikizo kwa owongolera.

Kutsiliza

Kuchita bizinesi kumatha kukhala ntchito yovuta komanso yosangalatsa, koma mwatsoka imadza ndi zoopsa. Mabizinesi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti amatha kupatula udindo pokhazikitsa bungwe lovomerezeka. Awa azamalonda adzakhala okhumudwitsa; Pazinthu zina, udindo wa owongolera ungagwire ntchito. Izi zitha kukhala ndi zotsatirapo zazikulu; wotsogolera adzalembetsa ngongole z kampaniyo ndi zinthu zake zachinsinsi. Chifukwa chake, zoopsa zomwe zimapezeka chifukwa cha chiwongolero cha owongolera siziyenera kuchepetsedwa. Chingakhale chanzeru kuti otsogolera mabungwe azovomerezeka azitsatira malamulo onse ndikuwongolera bungwe lovomerezeka mwanjira yotseguka komanso mwadala.

Mtundu wathunthu wa nkhaniyi ukupezeka kudzera pa ulalo

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutawerenga nkhaniyi, chonde dziwani kuti mumasuka ndi a Maxim Hodak, oyimira milandu pa Law & More kudzera pa maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, kapena Tom Meevis, loya ku Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, kapena itanani + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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