Mavuto a oyang'anira ku The Netherlands

Introduction

Kuyambitsa kampani yanuyanu ndi ntchito yabwino kwa anthu ambiri ndipo amabwera ndi maubwino angapo. Komabe, zomwe (zamtsogolo) zamalonda zimawoneka kuti sizinyalanyaza, ndikuti kuyambitsa kampani kumabweretsanso zovuta komanso zoopsa. Kampani ikakhazikitsidwa mwanjira yovomerezeka, chiwopsezo cha owongolera chimakhalapo.

Bungwe lalamulo ndi bungwe lovomerezeka lovomerezeka ndi umunthu wovomerezeka. Chifukwa chake, bungwe lalamulo limatha kuchita zinthu zovomerezeka. Kuti izi zitheke, bungwe lalamulo lifunika kuthandizidwa. Popeza bungwe lalamulo limangokhala pakapepala, silingagwire ntchito lokha. Bungwe lalamulo liyenera kuyimiriridwa ndi munthu wachilengedwe. Mwakutero, bungwe lalamulo limayimiriridwa ndi gulu la owongolera. Oyang'anira atha kuchita zalamulo m'malo mwa mabungwe azovomerezeka. Wotsogolera amangomanga bungwe lalamulo ndi izi. Mwakutero, wotsogolera sakhala ndi ngongole pazobweza zamabungwe azovomerezeka ndi zinthu zake. Komabe, nthawi zina zovuta za owongolera zitha kuchitika, chifukwa chake wotsogolera adzakhala ndi mlandu payekha. Pali mitundu iwiri ya udindo wa owongolera: udindo wamkati ndi kunja. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza zifukwa zingapo zoyang'anira atsogoleri.

Mlandu wamkati mwa owongolera

Ngongole zamkati zimatanthawuza kuti wotsogolera azikhala ndi mlandu ndi bungwe lalamulo lokha. Ngongole zamkati zimachokera palemba 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Wotsogolera akhoza kuimbidwa mlandu mkati akakwaniritsa ntchito zake mosayenera. Kukwaniritsidwa kosakwanira kwa ntchito kumaganiziridwa ngati pakutsutsidwa kwakukulu kwa director. Izi zachokera palemba 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Kuphatikiza apo, wotsogolera sangakhale wosasamala pakuchita zinthu kuti alepheretse kuwongoleredwa kosayenera. Timalankhula liti kuti anthu amatineneza kwambiri? Malinga ndi malamulo a milanduzi zikuyenera kuwunikidwa poganizira zochitika zonse za mlanduwo.[1]

Kuchita mosemphana ndi zolemba zophatikizira bungwe lalamulo zimayikidwa ngati zochitika zapamwamba. Ngati ndi choncho, udindo wa owongolera udzaganiziridwa. Komabe, wotsogolera amatha kubweretsa zowonadi ndi zochitika zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti kuchita mosemphana ndi zolemba zomwe siziphatikizidwe sizimayambitsa mlandu waukulu. Ngati zili choncho, woweruzayo ayenera kuphatikizira izi pachigamulo chake.[2]

Milandu ingapo yamkati ndi chowonjezera

Zoyenera kutengera ndi mutu 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code ikuti pamalangizo onse owongolera ali ndi milandu yonse. Chifukwa chake milandu ikuluikulu oweruza onse adzapatsidwa. Komabe, pali chosiyana ndi lamuloli. Wotsogolera akhoza kudzipereka yekha (kuchokera pazowonjezera) pakulakwitsa kwa owongolera. Kuti achite izi, wotsogolera akuyenera kuwonetsa kuti sangamuimbe mlandu ndikuti sanakhale wonyalanyaza pakuchitapo kanthu pofuna kupewa kasamalidwe koyenera. Izi zikuchokera palemba 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Pempho lakunyinyirika silivomerezedwa mosavuta. Wowongolera akuyenera kuwonetsa kuti adatenga zonse mwa mphamvu zake kuti apewe kuyendetsa bwino. Cholemetsa chaumboni chagona kwa woyang'anira.

Kugawidwa kwa ntchito m'bungwe la owongolera kumatha kukhala kofunikira kudziwa ngati director ali ndi udindo kapena ayi. Komabe, ntchito zina zimawerengedwa kuti ndizofunikira kwa owongolera onse. Atsogoleri akuyenera kudziwa zina ndi zina. Kugawidwa kwa ntchito sikusintha izi. Kwenikweni, kusachita bwino sikuli chifukwa chodzichitira. Atsogoleri amayembekezeka kudziwitsidwa bwino ndikufunsa mafunso. Komabe, zinthu zitha kuchitika zomwe izi sizingayembekezeredwe kwa director.[3] Chifukwa chake, ngati wotsogolera angadzikhuthulitse, zimadalira kwambiri zowonadi ndi momwe mlanduwo uliri.

Ngongole zakunja kwa owongolera

Ngongole zakunja zimabweretsa kuti wotsogolera ali ndi udindo woloza nawo ena. Ngongole zakunja zimaboola chophimba. Bungwe lalamulo silitchinjiriza anthu achilengedwe omwe akuwongolera. Zoyenera kuvomerezedwa ndi owongolera zakunja ndizoyang'anira zosayenera, kutengera nkhani 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi nkhani 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (mkati mwa bankirapuse) ndi mchitidwe wozunzidwa kutengera nkhani 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code (kunja kwa bankirapuse ).

Zowongolera zakunja kwa owongoletsa mkati mwa bankrupt

Zovuta za owongolera zakunja mkati mwa bankirapuse zimagwiranso ntchito kumakampani omwe ali ndi ngongole zochepa (Dutch BV ndi NV). Izi zikuchokera palemba 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Oyang'anira akhoza kuimbidwa mlandu chifukwa bankirapuse idayambitsidwa chifukwa cha kusayang'anira kapena zolakwa za bolodi la otsogolera. Curator, yemwe akuimira onse omwe atenga ngongole, akuyenera kufufuza kuti awongolere ngati awongoleredwe.

Ngongole zakunja mkati mwa bankirapuse zitha kuvomerezedwa pamene gulu la owongolera lakwaniritsa ntchito zake molakwika ndipo kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera uku ndi chifukwa chofunikira kwambiri kubanki. Cholemetsa chaumboni pokhudzana ndi kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera kwa ntchito kumeneku kuli kwa wothandizira; akuyenera kunena kuti wotsogolera woganiza bwino, pamkhalidwe womwewo, sakanachita mwanjira imeneyi.[4] Zochita zomwe zimalepheretsa obwereketsa kukhala ndi malingaliro abwino zimabweretsa kuyang'anira kosayenera. Ozunza ndi owongolera ayenera kupewedwa.

Nyumba yamalamulo yaphatikizanso malingaliro ena otsimikizira mulemba 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code ndi nkhani 2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Gulu la owongolera silikugwirizana ndi lembalo 2:10 Dutch Civil Code kapena cholembedwa 2: 394 Dutch Civil Code, pamakhala umboni. Potere, zikuyembekezeredwa kuti kasamalidwe koyenera kamakhala chifukwa chofunikira kwambiri kubanki. Izi zimapereka chiwonetsero chazovuta kwa director. Komabe, otsogolera amatha kutsutsa zomwe ena amaganiza. Kuti achite izi, wotsogolera ayenera kufotokozera kuti bankirapuse sinayende chifukwa cha kasamalidwe kolakwika, koma ndi zina ndi zina. Wotsogolera ayeneranso kuwonetsa kuti sanakhale osasamala pakuchita zinthu pofuna kupewa oyang'anira osayenerera.[5] Kuphatikiza apo, curator imangoyitanitsa kudandaula kwa zaka zitatu isanachitike. Izi zikuchokera pamutu 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code ndi 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Milandu ingapo yakunja ndi kudalirana

Wotsogolera aliyense ali ndi mlandu wowongolera ndalama mwachisawawa. Komabe, otsogolera amatha kuthawa zovuta izi podzikwaniritsa. Izi zikuchokera pamutu 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code ndi 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Wowongolera akuyenera kutsimikizira kuti kukwaniritsidwa kosayenera kwa ntchito sikungamutsutse. Komanso mwina sanakhale osasamala pakuchita zina kuti athetse mavuto omwe amakwaniritsidwa pantchito yake. Cholemetsa chotsimikizira chikuwonetsa kuti ali ndi woyang'anira. Izi zachokera pazomwe zanenedwa pamwambapa ndipo zakhazikitsidwa mu milandu yaposachedwa ya Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch.[6]

Ngongole zakunja zochokera pakuzunza

Oyang'anira amathanso kuimbidwa mlandu chifukwa chozunza, zomwe zimachokera palemba 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code. Nkhaniyi imapereka zifukwa zambiri zangongole. Milandu yowongolera potengera chizunzo chimatha kupemphedwa ndi munthu amene mwamukongoletsa.

Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch limasiyanitsa mitundu iwiri ya milandu ya owongolera potengera kuzunza. Choyamba, zovuta zitha kuvomerezedwa pamaziko a muyezo wa Beklamel. Poterepa, wotsogolera walowa mu mgwirizano ndi kampani yachitatu m'malo mwa kampaniyo, pomwe akudziwa kapena moyenera akuyenera kuti amvetsetse kuti kampaniyo singatsatire zomwe zalembedwa mgwirizanowu.[7] Mtundu wachiwiri wa zovuta ndi kukhumudwa pazinthu. Potere, director adayambitsa kuti kampaniyo sikulipira ngongole zake ndipo ikulephera kukwaniritsa zomwe adalipira. Zochita za wotsogolera ndizosasamala, kotero kuti akhoza kumuneneza mwamphamvu.[8] Cholemetsa chaumboni mu izi chagona ndi wokongoza.

Mlandu wa oyang'anira bungwe lalamulo

Ku Netherlands, munthu wachilengedwe komanso bungwe lazovomerezeka likhoza kukhala wotsogolera bungwe lazovomerezeka. Kupangitsa zinthu kukhala zosavuta, munthu wachilengedwe yemwe ndi wotsogolera azitchedwa director director ndipo bungwe lalamulo lomwe ndi director director limatchedwa director director mundime iyi. Sikuti bungwe lalamulo likhoza kukhala wotsogolera, sizitanthauza kuti udindo wa owongolera ukhoza kupewedwa mwa kusankha bungwe lovomerezeka ngati director. Izi zikuchokera pamutu 2:11 Dutch Civil Code. Wotsogolera bungwe akakhala kuti ali ndi mlandu, chiwongolero ichi chimagwiritsidwanso ntchito ndi owongolera zachilengedwe a director director.

Article 2:11 Dutch Code Code imagwiranso ntchito pa zochitika zomwe atsogoleri owongolera amatengera zolemba 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code, nkhani 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code ndi 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Komabe, mafunso adadzuka ngati nkhani ya 2:11 kapena yachiwiri ya Dutch Civil Code imagwiranso ntchito pamlandu wa olamulira potengera chizunzo. Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch laganiza kuti ndi momwe ziliri. Pa chigamulo ichi, Khothi Lalikulu ku Dutch likulozera ku mbiriyakale yazovomerezeka. Ndime 2:11 Dutch Code Code ikufuna kuletsa anthu achilengedwe kubisalira oyang'anira mabungwe kuti apewe zovuta. Izi zikuphatikizira kuti nkhaniyi 2:11 Dutch Civil Code ikugwiranso ntchito pa milandu yonse yomwe wotsogolera bungwe akhoza kuyimbidwa mlandu malinga ndi lamulo.[9]

Kutaya kwamabungwe owongolera

Zowongolera zomwe owongolera atha kubweza zitha kupulumutsidwa ndikupereka zotulutsira komiti ya owongolera. Kutulutsa kumatanthawuza kuti ndondomeko ya gulu la owongolera, momwe ikuchitidwira mpaka mphindi yakuchotsedwa, ivomerezedwa ndi bungwe lalamulo. Kutulutsa ndikuchotsa zovuta pazomwe akuwongolera. Kutulutsa si nthawi yomwe ingapezeke pamalamulo, koma nthawi zambiri imaphatikizidwa pazophatikiza zophatikizika zovomerezeka. Kutulutsa ndikutchingira mkati. Chifukwa chake, kutulutsa kumangogwira ntchito pakubweza kwamkati. Zipani zachitatu zimatha kudzetsa owongolera.

Kutulutsa kumangogwira ntchito pazowona ndi zochitika zomwe zinali zodziwika kwa omwe akugawana nawo panthawi yomwe kuchotseredwa kudaperekedwa.[10]  Zovuta pazinthu zosadziwika zidzakhalapo. Chifukwa chake, kutulutsa sikokwanira kwathunthu ndipo sikupereka chitsimikiziro kwa otsogolera.

Kutsiliza

Kuchita bizinesi kumatha kukhala ntchito yovuta komanso yosangalatsa, koma mwatsoka imadza ndi zoopsa. Mabizinesi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti amatha kupatula udindo pokhazikitsa bungwe lovomerezeka. Awa azamalonda adzakhala okhumudwitsa; Pazinthu zina, udindo wa owongolera ungagwire ntchito. Izi zitha kukhala ndi zotsatirapo zazikulu; wotsogolera adzalembetsa ngongole z kampaniyo ndi zinthu zake zachinsinsi. Chifukwa chake, zoopsa zomwe zimapezeka chifukwa cha chiwongolero cha owongolera siziyenera kuchepetsedwa. Chingakhale chanzeru kuti otsogolera mabungwe azovomerezeka azitsatira malamulo onse ndikuwongolera bungwe lovomerezeka mwanjira yotseguka komanso mwadala.

Mtundu wathunthu wa nkhaniyi ukupezeka kudzera pa ulalo

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutawerenga nkhaniyi, chonde dziwani kuti mumasuka ndi a Maxim Hodak, oyimira milandu pa Law & More kudzera pa maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, kapena Tom Meevis, loya ku Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, kapena itanani + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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