Zovuta za olowa nawo gawo ku The Netherlands

Zovuta za owongolera kampani ku The Netherlands nthawi zonse zimakhala zokambirana zambiri. Zambiri sizikunenedwa pazokhudza omwe ali ndi masheya. Komabe, zimachitika kuti olowa nawo masheya amatha kukhala ndi mlandu pazomwe amachita pakampani malinga ndi malamulo achi Dutch. Wogawana nawo akakhala ndi mlandu pazomwe amachita, izi zimakhudza zovuta zomwe ali nazo, zomwe zitha kukhala ndi zotsatirapo zazikulu pamoyo wamogawana. Chifukwa chake, ndikofunikira kudziwa zoopsa zake pokhudzidwa ndi omwe amatenga nawo mbali. Zinthu zosiyanasiyana zomwe omwe ali ndi masheya ku Netherlands angakumane nazo tikambirana m'nkhaniyi.

1. Udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo masheya

Wogawana nawo amakhala ndimagawo azovomerezeka. Malinga ndi Dutch Civil Code, bungwe lalamulo limafanana ndi munthu wachilengedwe pankhani ya ufulu wa katundu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti bungwe lovomerezeka limatha kukhala ndi ufulu komanso maudindo ofanana ndi munthu wachilengedwe ndipo chifukwa chake limatha kuchita zinthu zovomerezeka, monga kupeza malo, kuchita mgwirizano kapena kulembetsa milandu. Popeza bungwe lovomerezeka limangopezeka papepala, bungwe lovomerezeka liyenera kuyimilidwa ndi munthu wachilengedwe, otsogolera. Pomwe bungwe lovomerezeka limakhala ndi mlandu pazowonongeka zilizonse zomwe zachitika chifukwa cha zomwe adachita, owongolera nthawi zina amathanso kukhala ndi mlandu potengera udindo wa owongolera. Komabe, izi zimabweretsa funso kuti ngati wogawana nawo akhoza kukhala ndi mlandu pazomwe akuchita malinga ndi bungwe lovomerezeka. Kuti mudziwe zovuta za omwe ali ndi masheya, udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo masheya akuyenera kukhazikitsidwa. Titha kusiyanitsa mitundu itatu yazoyenera kuchita kwa olowa nawo masheya: maudindo azamalamulo, maudindo omwe amachokera pazophatikiza ndi maudindo omwe amachokera mgwirizanowu.

Zovuta za omwe ali ndi masheya

1.1 Udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo masheya kuchokera pamalamulo

Malinga ndi Dutch Civil Code, omwe ali ndi masheya ali ndi udindo umodzi wofunikira: kulipira kampani kuti izigawana. Udindowu umachokera m'ndime 2: 191 Dutch Civil Code ndipo ndi udindo wokhawo kwa omwe akugawana nawo omwe amachokera ku lamuloli. Komabe, malinga ndi nkhani 2: 191 Dutch Civil Code ndizotheka kunena munkhani zophatikizira kuti magawo sayenera kulipidwa nthawi yomweyo:

Pakulembetsa kuti mugawire gawo, kuchuluka kwake kumayenera kulipidwa ku kampani. Ndizotheka kunena kuti kuchuluka kwa dzina, kapena kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwake, kumayenera kulipidwa pokhapokha nthawi yayitali kapena kampani itafuna kuti alipire. 

Komabe, ngati chofunikiracho chikuphatikizidwa muzolemba, pali gawo lomwe limateteza anthu ena pakagwa bankirapuse. Kampani itawonongeka ndipo magawo sanalipidwe mokwanira ndi omwe akugawana nawo, mwina chifukwa chazomwe zinalembedwazo mwangozi, woyang'anira woyenera akuyenera kulipira gawo lonse la omwe akugawana nawo. Izi zimachokera munkhani 2: 193 Dutch Civil Code:

Woyang'anira kampani amapatsidwa mphamvu zoyimbira ndi kusonkha ndalama zonse zoyenerera zomwe sizinaperekedwe pokhudzana ndi magawo. Mphamvuzi zilipo mosatengera zomwe zafotokozedwa pankhaniyi pakuphatikizika kapena malinga ndi Article 2: 191 Dutch Civil Code.

Zoyenereza zalamulo kuti omwe ali ndi masheya azilipira kwathunthu magawo omwe amafunira zikusonyeza kuti omwe ali ndi masheya ali ndi udindo pakungopeza magawo omwe atenga. Sangakhale ndi mlandu wakampani. Izi zimachokera ku nkhani 2:64 Dutch Civil Code ndi nkhani 2: 175 Dutch Civil Code:

Wogawana nawo samakhala ndi udindo pazomwe zimachitika mdzina la kampaniyo ndipo sakukakamizidwa kuti athandizire kuwonongeka kwa kampaniyo kuposa zomwe adalipira kapena zomwe amayenera kulipira pazogawana zake.

1.2 Udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo masheya kuchokera pazophatikizidwa

Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, olowa nawo masheya ali ndi udindo umodzi wovomerezeka: kulipira magawo awo. Komabe, kuphatikiza pakukakamizidwa kwalamulo, udindo wa omwe ali ndi masheya amathanso kufotokozedwa munkhani zophatikiza. Izi zikugwirizana ndi nkhani 2: 192, ndime 1 Dutch Civil Code:

Zolemba zophatikizira zitha, pokhudzana ndi magawo onse kapena magawo amtundu wina:

  1. nena kuti zina zomwe ziyenera kuchitidwa pakampaniyo, kwa anthu ena kapena pakati pa onse omwe ali ndi masheya, ndizophatikizidwa;
  2. onetsetsani zofunikira pakugawana nawo masheya;
  3. Dziwani kuti wogawana nawo masheya, munthawi zomwe zafotokozedwazo, akuyenera kusamutsa magawo ake kapena gawo lina kapena kupereka mwayi wogawa masheya.

Malinga ndi nkhaniyi, zolemba zomwe zikuphatikizidwa zitha kunena kuti wogawana nawo akhoza kukhala ndi ngongole pakampani. Komanso, zikhalidwe zakampaniyo zachuma zitha kufotokozedwa. Izi zimakulitsa udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo. Komabe, zopereka ngati izi sizingafanane ndi zofuna za omwe akugawana nawo. Amangotchulidwa pokhapokha ngati olowa nawo masheya agwirizana ndi zomwe apatsidwa. Izi zimachokera munkhani 2: 192, ndime 1 Dutch Civil Code:

Zoyenera kapena zofunikira monga tafotokozera m'ndime yapitayi pansi pa (a), (b) kapena (c) sizingakhazikitsidwe kwa omwe adzagawana nawo malinga ndi chifuniro chake, ngakhale atakhala kuti alibe nthawi.

Pofuna kufotokozera zina zofunika kwa omwe akugawana nawo mu zolembedwazi, lingaliro la omwe ali ndi masheya liyenera kutengedwa ndi Msonkhano Wonse waogawana. Ngati wogawana nawo mavoti motsutsana ndi kulongosola zina kapena zofunikira kwa omwe akugawana nawo pazinthu zophatikizira, sangakhale ndi mlandu pokhudzana ndi izi kapena zofunika.

1.3 Udindo wa omwe akugawana nawo masheya kuchokera mgwirizanowu

Ogawana ali ndi mwayi wopanga mgwirizano wamasheya. Chigwirizano cha omwe ali ndi masheya chimamalizidwa pakati pa omwe ali ndi masheya ndipo chimakhala ndi ufulu wowonjezera ndi maudindo kwa omwe akugawana nawo. Mgwirizano wa olowa nawo masheya umangogwira ntchito kwa omwe akugawana nawo, sizikhudza anthu ena. Ngati wogawana nawo samvera mgwirizano wamasheya, atha kukhala ndi mlandu pazowonongeka zomwe zakwaniritsidwa chifukwa cholephera kutsatira. Udindowu udzakhala chifukwa cholephera kutsatira mgwirizano, womwe umachokera munkhani ya 6:74 Dutch Civil Code. Komabe, ngati pali m'modzi m'modzi m'modzi yekhayo amene ali ndi magawo onse pakampani, sizoyenera kuti apange mgwirizano wamasheya.

2. Udindo pazinthu zosaloledwa

Pafupi ndi maudindo awa kwa omwe akugawana nawo masheya, zovuta zokhudzana ndi zosavomerezeka zimayeneranso kuganiziridwa posankha zovuta za omwe ali ndi masheya. Aliyense ali ndi udindo wochita malinga ndi lamulo. Munthu akachita zosavomerezeka, amatha kumuimbidwa mlandu malinga ndi nkhani 6: 162 Dutch Civil Code. Ogawana nawo ayenera kuchita mwalamulo kwa omwe amabweza ngongole, osunga ndalama, ogulitsa ndi ena ena. Wogawana nawo akachita zosavomerezeka, akhoza kukhala ndi mlandu pazomwe achite. Wogawana nawo akamachita zomwe anganene kuti amuneneza, kuchita zosavomerezeka kumavomerezedwa. Chitsanzo cha zomwe wogawana nawo akuchita mosaloledwa zitha kukhala kupereka phindu pomwe zikuwonekeratu kuti kampaniyo singathenso kulipira omwe adalemba pambuyo pobweza.

Kuphatikiza apo, kuchita zosavomerezeka kwa omwe akugawana nawo nthawi zina kumatha kubwera chifukwa chogulitsa magawo kwa ena. Zikuyembekezeka kuti wogawana nawo gawo, pamlingo winawake, ayambe kufufuza za munthu kapena kampani yomwe akufuna kugulitsa magawo ake. Kufufuza koteroko kuwulula kuti kampani yomwe wogawana nawo masheya sangakwanitse kukwaniritsa udindo wake pambuyo pogawana masheya, olandayo akuyenera kuganizira zofuna za omwe amabweza ngongole. Izi zikuwonetsa kuti olowa nawo masheya nthawi zina amatha kukhala ndi mlandu akadzasamutsa magawo ake kwa ena ndipo izi zimapangitsa kuti kampaniyo isamapereke ndalama kwa omwe amawagulitsa.

3. Zovuta za omwe amapanga mfundo

Pomaliza, zovuta za omwe akugawana nawo masheya amatha kubwera pamene wogawana nawo masheya akhale wopanga mfundo. M'malo mwake, owongolera ali ndi ntchito yochita zochitika pakampani. Iyi si ntchito ya omwe akugawana nawo. Komabe, olowa nawo masheya ali ndi mwayi wopatsa owongolera malangizo. Izi zikuyenera kuphatikizidwa muzophatikiza. Malinga ndi nkhani 2: 239, ndime 4 Dutch Civil Code, owongolera akuyenera kutsatira malangizo a omwe ali ndi masheya, pokhapokha malangizowa akutsutsana ndi zomwe kampaniyo ili:

Zolemba zophatikizira zitha kupatsa kuti bungwe la oyang'anira liyenera kuchita malinga ndi malangizo a bungwe lina labungwe. Bungwe la oyang'anira limakakamizidwa kutsatira malamulowo pokhapokha ngati izi zikutsutsana ndi zofuna za kampaniyo kapena bizinesi yomwe ikugwirizana nayo.

Komabe, ndikofunikira kuti omwe akugawana nawo amangopereka malangizo wamba.[1] Ogawana sangapereke malangizo pazokhudza zochitika kapena zochita zina. Mwachitsanzo, olowa nawo masheya sangapatse director malangizo oti achotse ntchito. Ogawana nawo sangatenge udindo wa director. Ngati olowa nawo masheya akuchita ngati owongolera, ndikuchita zochitika pakampaniyo, amawerengedwa kuti ndi omwe amapanga mfundo ndipo adzawatenga ngati owongolera. Izi zikutanthauza kuti atha kukhala olangidwa pazowonongeka zochokera pazomwe zachitika. Chifukwa chake, atha kukhala ndi mlandu kutengera zovuta za owongolera kampani ikabweza.[2] Izi zimachokera munkhani 2: 138, ndime 7 Dutch Civil Code ndi Article 2: 248, ndime 7 Dutch Civil Code:

Pachifukwa cha nkhaniyi, munthu amene watsimikiza kapena kutsimikiza mtima mfundo zakampaniyo ngati kuti ndi director, amafanizidwa ndi director.

Article 2: 216, ndime 4 Dutch Civil Code imanenanso kuti munthu amene watsimikiza kapena kutsimikiza kuti mfundo za kampaniyo zikufanana ndi director, motero atha kukhala ndi mlandu kutengera udindo wa owongolera.

4. Kutsiliza

Mwakutero, kampani ili ndi mlandu pazowonongeka zomwe zachitika chifukwa cha zomwe amachita. Nthawi zina, owongolera amathanso kukhala ndi mlandu. Komabe, ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti omwe akugawana nawo kampaniyo amathanso kukhala olangidwa pakuwonongeka kwakanthawi. Wogawana nawo sangachite chilichonse popanda kuwalanga. Ngakhale izi zitha kumveka zomveka, pakuwonetsa chidwi chochepa chimaperekedwa kuzovuta za omwe ali ndi masheya. Ogawana nawo ali ndi udindo womwe umachokera pamalamulo, zolemba ndi mgwirizano wa omwe akugawana nawo. Ogawana akakanika kutsatira malamulowa, akhoza kukhala ndi mlandu pazowonongeka.

Kuphatikiza apo, olowa nawo masheya, monga aliyense, ayenera kuchita malinga ndi lamulo. Kuchita mosaloledwa kumatha kubweretsa zovuta kwa omwe akugawana nawo. Pomaliza, wogawana nawo masheya ayenera kukhala wogawana nawo osati monga director. Wogawana nawo akamayamba kuchita zomwe zikuchitika pakampani, adzafanizidwa ndi director. Poterepa, zovuta za owongolera zitha kugwiranso ntchito kwa omwe akugawana nawo. Kungakhale kwanzeru kuti omwe akugawana nawo masheya azikumbukira zoopsa izi, kuti apewe zovuta za omwe akugawana nawo.

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutatha kuwerenga nkhaniyi, chonde dziwani kuti ndinu omasuka kulumikizana ndi Mr. Maxim Hodak, loya pa Law & More kudzera pa maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, kapena Mr. Tom Meevis, loya ku Law & More kudzera tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, kapena itanani + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1955: AG2033 (Forumbank).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Hollandse Glascentrale Beheer BV).

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