Kufalitsa ndi ufulu wa zithunzi

One of the most discussed topics in the World Cup of 2014. Robin van Persie who equalizes the score against Spain in a gliding dive with a beautiful header. His excellent performance also resulted in a Calvé advertisement in a form of a poster and a commercial. The commercial tells the story of a 5 year old Robin van Persie who earns his entry at Excelsior with the same kind of gliding dive. Robin was probably well paid for the commercial, but could this usage of copyright also be adapted and modified without Persie’s permission?

Tanthauzo

Kumanja kwa chithunzi ndi mbali yaumwini. Copyright Act imasiyanitsa magawo awiri a ufulu wachibadwidwe, chomwe ndi chithunzi chomwe chimapangidwa pazogwiritsidwa ntchito komanso chithunzi chomwe sichinapangidwe pazogawidwa. Pakati pazinthu zonsezi pali kusiyana kwakukulu pazotsatira zakusindikiza ndi ufulu wa omwe akukhudzidwa.

Kufalitsa ndi ufulu wa zithunzi

Timalankhula liti za chithunzi? Funso lisanayankhidwe kuti ufulu wamtunduwu ndi wotani komanso komwe ufuluwo umafikira, funso loti chithunzi choyambirira, liyenera kuyankhidwa kaye. Mafotokozedwe a lamuloli samapereka chidziwitso chokwanira komanso chomveka. Monga mafotokozedwe azithunzi amaperekedwa: ‘an image of the face of a person, with or without that of other parts of the body, in whatever way it is made’.

If we only look at this explanation, we might think that a portrait only includes the face of a person. However, this is not the case. Incidentally, the addition: ‘in whatever way it is made’ means that it does not matter for a portrait whether it is photographed, painted or designed in any other form. A television broadcast or caricature can therefore also fall within the scope of a portrait. This makes clear, that the scope of the term ‘portrait’ is wide-ranging. A portrait also includes a video, illustration or graphic representation. Various proceedings have been conducted in relation to this matter and the Supreme Court has ultimately elaborated on this in more detail, namely, the term ‘portrait’ is used when a person is portrayed in a recognisable manner. This recognition can be found in the facial features and the face, but it can also be found in something else. Think, for example, of a characteristic posture or hairstyle. The surroundings can also play a role. A person who is walking in front of the building where that person works is more likely to be recognized than when that person was portrayed at a location where he or she would normally never go.

Ufulu wazamalamulo

Pakhoza kukhala kuphwanya ufulu wachithunzicho ngati munthu amene akujambulidwa akuzindikirika mu chithunzi ndipo adasindikizidwanso. Ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa ngati chithunzicho chidatumizidwa kapena ayi komanso ngati chinsinsi chimapambana ufulu wogwiritsa ntchito. Ngati munthu wapereka chithunzi, chithunzicho chingapangidwe pokhapokha ngati munthu amene akufunsidwayo walola. Ngakhale kuti ufulu wa ntchitoyo ndi wa wopanga chithunzicho, sangathe kuuuza pagulu popanda chilolezo. Mbali inayi ya ndalamayo ndi yoti munthu amene akuwonetsedwa samaloledwanso kuchita chilichonse ndi chithunzi. Zachidziwikire, munthu yemwe akuwonetsedwa amatha kugwiritsa ntchito chithunzichi pazinsinsi. Ngati munthu amene akuwonetsedwa akufuna kulengeza pachithunzicho, ayenera kukhala ndi chilolezo kuchokera kwa amene amamulenga. Kupatula apo, wopanga ali ndi ufulu.

Pursuant to Section 21 of the Copyright Law, the creator is in theory entitled to publish the portrait freely. However, this is not an absolute right. The subjected person may act against the publication, if and to the extent that he has a reasonable interest in doing so. The right of privacy is often referred to as a reasonable interest. Well-known persons such as sportsmen and artists may, in addition to the reasonable interest, also have commercial interests to prevent publication. In addition to the commercial interest, however, celebrity may also have another interest. After all, there is a chance that he/she will suffer damage to his/her reputation because of the publication. Since the concept of “reasonable interest” is subjective and parties are generally reluctant to agree on the interest, you can see that many proceedings are being conducted regarding this concept. It is then up to the court to determine whether the interest of the person portrayed prevails over the interest of the maker and the publication.

Zotsatirazi ndizofunikira pachithunzichi:

  • chidwi chokwanira
  • chidwi cha malonda

Ngati tiwona chitsanzo cha a Robin van Persie, zikuwonekeratu kuti ali ndi zonse zomveka komanso zamalonda chifukwa cha kutchuka kwake. Oweruza atsimikiza kuti chidwi ndi ndalama komanso zamalonda za osewera wapamwamba zitha kuwonedwa ngati chidwi chokwanira malinga ndi gawo la 21 la Copyright Act. Potengera nkhaniyi, kusindikiza ndi kusindikiza chithunzi sikuloledwa popanda chilolezo cha munthu amene akuonetsedwa pachithunzichi, ngati chidwi cha munthu ameneyo chatsutsidwa. Wothamanga wapamwamba amatha kulipira chindapusa kuti chilolezo chizogwiritsa ntchito chithunzi chake pazamalonda. Mwanjira imeneyi amathanso kutchukitsa kutchuka kwake, izi zitha kutenga mawonekedwe a mgwirizano, mwachitsanzo. Koma bwanji za mpira wa masewera amateur ngati simudziwika bwino? Pazochitika zina, ufulu wakufanizawu ukugwiranso ntchito kwa osewera apamwamba amateur. Mu Vanderlyde / kampani yofalitsa nkhani ya Spaarnestad wothamanga wamasewera amatsutsa kutsatsa kwake chithunzi chake m'magazini ya sabata. Chithunzicho chidapangidwa popanda komisheni yake ndipo anali asanapereke chilolezo kapena kulandira chindapusa chobwezeretsedwako. Khotilo lidaganiza kuti wothamanga amateur alinso ndi mwayi wopeza ndalama atatchuka ngati kutchuka kumene kumakhala ndi phindu pamsika.

Kuphwanya

Ngati zokonda zanu zikuwoneka kuti zikuphwanyidwa, mutha kufunsa zoletsa, koma ndizothekanso kuti chithunzi chanu chagwiritsidwa kale ntchito. Mukatero mutha kufunsa kuti mupweze. Kubwezera uku nthawi zambiri sikokwanira kwambiri koma kumadalira zinthu zingapo. Pali njira zinayi zomwe mungachitepo kanthu paphwanya ufulu wa chithunzi:

  • Kalata yamuyilo ndi kulengeza kuti tisalole
  • Kupemphedwa kwa milandu yachitukuko
  • Kuletsa kufalitsa
  • malipilo

Zilango

The moment it becomes apparent that someone’s portrait right is being violated, it is often important to get a ban on further publications in court as soon as possible. Depending on the situation, it is also possible to have the publications removed from the commercial market. This is called a recall. This procedure is often accompanied by a claim for damages. After all, by acting contrary to the portrait right, the person portrayed may suffer damages. How high the compensation is depending on the damage suffered, but also on the portrait and the way in which the person is portrayed. There is also a fine under Article 35 of the Copyright Act. If the portrait right is violated, the offender of the portrait right is guilty of a violation and he/ she will be fined.

Ngati ufulu wanu waphwanyidwa, mutha kuyitananso zowonongeka. Mutha kuchita izi ngati chithunzi chanu chidafalitsidwa kale ndipo mukukhulupirira kuti zofuna zanu zidaphwanyidwa.

The amount of the compensation will often be determined by the court. Two well-known examples are the “Schiphol terrorist photo” in which the military police picked out a man with a Muslim appearance for a security check with a text under the picture “Is Schiphol still safe?” and the situation of a man who was on his way to the train been photoshopped walking across the Red Light District ending up in the newspaper under the heading “Peeking at the whores”.

In both cases it was judged that privacy outweighed the photographer’s freedom of speech. This means that you can’t just publish every photo you take on the street. Usually are these kind of fees between 1500 to 2500 euros.

Ngati, kuwonjezera pa chiwongoladzanja chokwanira, palinso chiwonetsero cha malonda, chiphuphucho chimatha kukwera kwambiri. Chipepeso chonsecho chimatengera zomwe zidakhala zofunikira pantchito zofananira motero zimatha kukhala makumi masauzande.

Lumikizanani

Poganizira za momwe zingapangidwire, ndibwino kuchitapo kanthu mosamala posindikiza zithunzi ndikuyesetsa momwe mungathere chilolezo cha omwe akukhudzidwiratu. Kupatula apo, izi zimapewa zokambirana zambiri pambuyo pake.

Ngati mungafune kudziwa zambiri pankhani ya ufulu wa zithunzi kapena ngati mungagwiritse ntchito zithunzi zina popanda chilolezo, kapena ngati mukukhulupirira kuti wina akuphwanya ufulu wanu wazithunzi, mutha kulumikizana ndi maloya a Law & More.

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