Kuzindikiridwa ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwachiwonetsero chaku Russia

M'magulu ambiri azamalonda apadziko lonse lapansi komanso mayiko ena, nthawi zambiri amakonda kukonza arbitrage kuti athetse mikangano yabizinesi. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mlanduwo uperekedwa kwa woweruza m'malo mwa woweruza kukhothi ladziko. Kuti akwaniritse mphotho yaumbombo kuti akwaniritse, akuyenera kuti woweruza wadziko akwaniritse chiwonetsero. Wofotokozera amatanthauza kuzindikira kuvomerezedwa kwa mphothoyo ndi ofanana ndi chigamulo chalamulo chomwe chitha kukakamizidwa kapena kuphedwa. Malamulo ovomerezeka ndikutsatira chigamulo chakunja amayendetsedwa mu Msonkhano wa New York. Msonkhanowu udalandiridwa ndi msonkhano wazokambirana wa United Nations pa 10 June 1958 ku New York. Msonkhanowu udamalizidwa makamaka kuwongolera ndikuwongolera njira zakuzindikira ndikukwaniritsa chigamulo chalamulo chakunja pakati pa mayiko omwe akuchita mgwirizano.

Pakadali pano, msonkhano ku New York uli ndi zipani 159 za boma.

Zikafika povomerezedwa ndikukakamizidwa kutengera nkhani V (1) ya Msonkhano wa New York, woweruzayo amaloledwa kukhala ndi mphamvu zanzeru m'milandu yapadera. Mwakutero, woweruzayo saloledwa kuyesa kapena kutsimikizira zomwe zili m'chiweruzo pamilandu yokhudza kuvomerezedwa ndikukakamizidwa. Komabe, pali zotsalira pokhudzana ndi zisonyezo zazikulu zakulephera pamalamulo, kotero kuti sizingayesedwe ngati chiweruzo choyenera. Kupatula kwina pamalamulowa kukugwiranso ntchito ngati zili zokwanira kuti mlandu ungaweruzidwe mwachilungamo, zikadapangitsanso chiweruzo chalamulo. Nkhani yofunika iyi ya High Council ikuwonetsa momwe kupatula komwe kungagwiritsidwe ntchito tsiku lililonse. Funso lalikulu ndiloti ngati mphotho yoweruza yomwe yawonongedwa ndi khothi lamilandu yaku Russia, ikhoza kupitilizabe kuvomereza ndikukakamiza ku Netherlands.

Kuzindikiridwa ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwachiwonetsero chaku Russia

Mlanduwu ndi wokhudza bungwe lalamulo ku Russia lomwe limapanga maiko akunja omwe amatchedwa OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Wopanga zitsulo ndiye wolemba wamkulu kwambiri m'chigawo cha Russia cha Lipetsk. Magawo ambiri pakampaniyo ndi a bizinesi yaku Russia VS Lisin. Lisin ndiye mwiniwake wa madoko osinthira ku St. Petersburg ndi Tuapse. Lisin ali ndi udindo wapamwamba ku kampani yaboma yaku Russia ya United Shipbuilding Corporation komanso ali ndi chidwi ndi kampani yaboma yaku Russia ya Freight One, yomwe ndi kampani yanjanji. Kutengera ndi Pangano la Zogula, lomwe limaphatikizapo milandu yokomera milandu, onse awiri agwirizana kugula ndi kugulitsa magawo a Lisin ku NLMK a NLMK. Pambuyo pa mkangano komanso kulipira mochedwa kwa mtengo wogula m'malo mwa NLKM, Lisin aganiza zopititsa nkhaniyi ku Khothi Lalikulu la Zamalonda Padziko Lonse ku Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation ndikulamula kuti malipirowo agulitsidwe, zomwe zili kwa iye, ma ruble 14,7 biliyoni. NLMK ikumadzitchinjiriza kuti Lisin adalandiratu kale zomwe zikutanthauza kuti kuchuluka kwa mtengo wogula kwasintha kukhala ma ruble 5,9 biliyoni.

Marichi 2011 njira yachifwamba idayambika motsutsana ndi Lisin pakuwaganizira zachinyengo ngati gawo logawana nawo ntchito ndi NLMK komanso chifukwa chokayikira kuti yasokeretsa khothi la Arbitration pa mlandu wotsutsana ndi NLMK. Komabe, madandaulowo sanachititse kuti mlandu wabodza upitirire.

Khothi la Arbitration, komwe mlandu wa Lisin ndi NLMK wabweretsedwa, adalamula NLMK kuti alipire mtengo wotsalira wa ruble 8,9 rubles ndipo wakana zomwe onsewo adanena. Mtengo wogula umawerengeredwa potsatira theka la mtengo wogulidwa ndi Lisin (ruble 22,1 biliyoni) ndi mtengo wowerengedwa ndi NLMK (ruble 1,4 biliyoni). Ponena za malipiro apamwamba khothi lalamula NLMK kuti ipereke ruble 8,9 biliyoni. Apilo yoweruza chigamulo cha khothi la Arbitration sichingatheke ndipo a NLMK adatinso, kutengera zomwe zidawoneka kale zachinyengo zomwe Lisin adachita, kuti awononge gawo lachigamulo lomwe khothi la Arbitrazh la mumzinda wa Moscow lidachita. Kudzinenera kuti kwaperekedwa ndipo mphotho yakugonjera idzawonongedwa.

Lisin sadzayimira ndipo akufuna kutsatira dongosolo lakusungidwa pamagawo omwe NLMK ili ku likulu lawo la NLMK International BV ku Amsterdam. Kuwonongedwa kwa chigamulochi kwapangitsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kutsatira lamulo loteteza ku Russia. Chifukwa chake, kupempha kwa Lisin kuti avomerezedwe ndikukakamizidwa kwa mphotho yolimbana. Pempho lake lakanidwa. Kutengera ndi msonkhano wa ku New York ndizofala kwa olamulira oyenera a dziko lomwe njira zawo zachilungamo lipoti la chigamulo limakhazikitsidwa (pankhani iyi makhoti wamba aku Russia) asankhe mkati mwalamulo la dziko, pakuwonongedwa kwa mphotho ya Arbitration. Mwakutero, bwalo lamilandu silikuloledwa kuwunika awa mphotho za Arbitration. Khothi ku Interlocutory Proceedings likuwona kuti mphotho yoyeserera siyingaperekedwe, chifukwa ilibenso.

Lisin adapereka apilo yokana chigamulo ichi ku Khothi Loweruza la Amsterdam. Khotilo likuwona kuti mwachidziwitso mphotho yokonzedweratu nthawi zambiri siyingaganizire kuvomerezedwa kapena kukhazikitsidwa pokhapokha ngati mlandu wawo ndi wapadera. Pali milandu yapadera ngati pali ziwonetsero zamphamvu kuti chigamulo cha makhoti aku Russia sichikhala ndi zolakwika zofunika, kotero kuti izi sizingaganizidwe ngati mlandu woweruza. Khothi Loweruza ku Amsterdam siliona mlanduwu ngati wosavomerezeka.

Lisin adachita apilo mlanduwo mopempha izi. Malinga ndi a Lisin khothi lidalephera kuyamikiranso mphamvu zoyeseleredwa ku khothi potengera nkhani V (1) (e) yomwe imawunika ngati chiwonongeko chakunja chitha kupititsa patsogolo njira zoyendetsera mphotho yaku Netherlands. Bungwe Lalikulu linayerekezera zolemba zenizeni za Chingerezi ndi Chifalansa zomwe zalembedwa pamsonkhano. Mabaibulo onsewa akuwoneka kuti ali ndi matanthauzidwe osiyana okhudza mphamvu yakusankha yomwe idaperekedwa ku khothi. Mtundu wachingerezi wa nkhani V (1) (e) akuti:

  1. Kuzindikiridwa ndikulimbikitsa kulandira mphothoyo kukanidwa, pokhapokha chipani chomwe chikupemphedwa, pokhapokha chipani chikaperekedwa kwa woyenerera komwe kuvomerezedwa ndi kukhazikikitsidwa kumafunidwa, chitsimikizo kuti:

(...)

  1. e) Mphothoyi sichikhala chomangirira maphwando, kapena idayikidwa pambali kapena kuyimitsidwa ndi boma ladziko lomwe, kapena pansi pa lamulo lomwe, mphothoyo idachitidwa. "

Mtundu waku French nkhani V (1) (e) akuti:

"1. La reconnaissance et l'exécution de la chiganizo ndi ma sega akukambirana, Kufunikirako gawo lokhazikika, anthu omwe ali ndi chilolezo chofuna kupereka malipirowa ayenera kulipira:

(...)

  1. e) Chilango chokhazikitsira ufulu wothandizila anthu kuti azitsatira zipani kapena a annééé ou suspendue par une autorité compétente du pay dans lequel, ou d'après la loi duquel, ndipo chigamulochi chiyenera kuperekedwa. "

Mphamvu zakusankha za Chingerezi ('atha kukanidwa') zikuwoneka zokulirapo kuposa Chifalansa ('ne seront refusées que si'). A High Council adapeza matanthauzidwe osiyanasiyana pazinthu zina zakugwiritsa ntchito msonkhanowu moyenera.

Bungwe Lalikulu liyesa kumveketsa kumasulira kosiyanako powonjezera matanthauzidwe ake. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mphamvu yakusankha ikhoza kuikidwa pokhapokha ngati pali chifukwa chokana malinga ndi Mgwirizanowu. Pankhaniyi zinali za chifukwa chokana kutanthauzira kuti 'kuwonongedwa kwa mphotho ya Arbitration'. Ndizotheka ku Lisin kutsimikizira zochokera pazowona ndi zochitika zomwe nthaka yokana yopanda maziko.

A High Council amagawana kwathunthu malingaliro a Khothi Lalikulu. Pangakhale mlandu wapadera malinga ndi Khothi Lalikulu pomwe kuwonongedwa kwa mphotho yaumbuyo kutengera zifukwa zomwe sizikugwirizana ndi kukana kwa nkhani V (1). Ngakhale khothi lachi Dutch lipatsidwa mphamvu zodziyimira palokha ngati lingavomerezedwe ndikukakamizidwa, silikugwiritsanso ntchito chiweruzo pankhaniyi. Zotsutsa zopangidwa ndi Lisin sizikhala ndi mwayi wopambana.

Chigamulo ichi cha High Council chimapereka kumasulira komveka momwe nkhani V (1) yamsonkhano waku New York iyenera kutanthauzidwira potengera mphamvu yakusankha yomwe idaperekedwa ku khothi pakuvomerezedwa ndikuwongolera chigamulo chachiwonongeko. Izi zikutanthauza, mwachidule, kuti pazochitika zina zokha chiwonongeko cha chiwonongeko chitha kupitilizidwa.

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