Bankruptcy Act ndi njira zake

M'mbuyomu tidalemba a blog pazomwe zingalembetsedwe ngati bankirapuse komanso momwe njirayi imagwirira ntchito. Kuphatikiza pa bankirapuse (yoyendetsedwa pamutu I), Bankruptcy Act (mu Dutch the Faillissementswet, yomwe pano ikutchedwa 'Fw') ili ndi njira zina ziwiri. Momwemonso: kusungidwa (mutu wachiwiri) ndi dongosolo lokonzanso ngongole zachilengedwe (Mutu III, wotchedwanso Debt Rescheduling Natural Persons Act kapena ku Dutch the Wet Schuldsanering Natuurlijke Anthu 'WSNP'). Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa njirazi? M'nkhaniyi tifotokoza izi.

Bankruptcy Act ndi njira zake

bankirapuse

Choyambirira komanso chachikulu, Fw imayang'anira njira za bankirapuse. Zochitikazi zikuphatikiza kuphatikiza kwathunthu kwa onse omwe ali ndi ngongole kuti athandize omwe amabweza. Zimakhudza kukonzanso pamodzi. Ngakhale kuthekera kumakhalapo nthawi zonse kwa omwe amabweza ngongole kufunafuna kukonzanso kwawo kunja kwa bankirapuse potengera zomwe Code of Civil Procedure (mu Dutch Wetboek van Burgerlijke Kukonzanso kapena 'Rv'), sikuti nthawi zonse njira yabwino pagulu. Ngati njira yothandizirana yokhazikitsidwa ikukhazikitsidwa, imasunga njira zingapo zopezera mutu wothandizidwa ndi kuyendetsa kwake. Kuphatikiza apo, katundu wa wobwereketsa amagawidwa mwachilungamo pakati pa omwe amabweza ngongole, mosiyana ndi momwe angachitire, komwe kulibe dongosolo loyambirira.

Lamuloli limaphatikizapo zinthu zingapo panjirayi. Ngati bankirapuse italamulidwa, wobweza ngongoleyo amataya ndikuwongolera chuma chake (malowa) chomwe chingapezeke malinga ndi Article 23 Fw. Kuphatikiza apo, sizingathekenso kuti omwe adalipira ngongole afunefune kukonzanso aliyense payekha, ndipo zonse zomwe zidaphatikizidwa bankirapuse isanathetsedwe (Article 33 Fw). Kuthekera kokha kwa omwe amabweza ngongole pobweza banki kuti azilipira ndalama zawo ndikupereka izi kuti zitsimikizidwe (Article 26 Fw). Wosungitsa bankirapuse wosankhidwa amasankhidwa yemwe amasankha pakuwonetsetsa ndikuyang'anira ndikuwongolera malowo kuti athandize onse omwe abwereketsa nawo (Article 68 Fw).

Kuyimitsidwa kolipira

Kachiwiri, FW imapereka njira ina: kuyimitsidwa kwa zolipira. Njirayi sikuti igawire ndalama za amene amabweza ngongole monga bankirapuse, koma kuti zisungidwe. Ngati nkuthekabe kutuluka mumdimawo ndikupeweratu bankirapuse, izi ndizotheka kwa wobwereketsa ngati amasungabe chuma chake. Wobweza ngongole atha kufunsa zakusokonekera ngati sali m'malo omwe asiya kulipira ngongole zake, koma ngati zamtsogolo kuti adzakumana ndi zotere mtsogolomo (Article 214 Fw).

Ngati pempholo liperekedwa, wobwereketsayo sangakakamizidwe kulipira zomwe adanenazo, kuimitsidwa kumayimitsidwa, ndipo zophatikizika zonse (zodzitchinjiriza ndikukakamiza) zimachotsedwa. Lingaliro la izi ndikuti potengera kukakamiza, pali mwayi wokonzanso. Komabe, nthawi zambiri izi sizikuyenda bwino, chifukwa nkutheka kuti zitsimikizire zomwe zikuyikidwa patsogolo (mwachitsanzo pankhani ya ufulu wosunga kapena ufulu wachikole kapena ngongole yanyumba). Kufunsira kwa kuimitsa ntchito kumatha kuyimitsa mabelu alamu kwa omwe akukongoletsani motero kuwalimbikitsa kulimbikira kubweza. Kuphatikiza apo, zimangokhala zochepa kuthekera kuti wobwereketsayo athe kukonzanso antchito ake.

Kukonzanso ngongole kwa anthu achilengedwe

Njira yachitatu mu Fw, kukonzanso ngongole kwa anthu achilengedwe, ikufanana ndi njira ya bankirapuse. Chifukwa makampani amasungunuka pothetsa njira za bankirapuse, omwe amabwereketsa ndalama alibe ngongole ndipo sangapeze ndalama zawo. Izi sizomwe zili choncho kwa munthu wachilengedwe, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti ena omwe ali ndi ngongole amatha kutsatiridwa ndi omwe amakhala ndi ngongole kwa moyo wawo wonse. Ndiye chifukwa chake, pambuyo pomaliza bwino, wobwereketsa atha kuyamba ndi dongosolo loyambiranso ngongole.

Tsamba loyera limatanthauza kuti ngongole zomwe sanalandire omwe ali ndi ngongole zimasinthidwa kukhala zofunikira zachilengedwe (Article 358 Fw). Izi sizikakamizidwa ndi lamulo, chifukwa chake zitha kuwonedwa ngati zofunika kuchita. Kuti tipeze mbiri yoyera iyi, ndikofunikira kuti wobwereketsa akuyesetsa momwe angathere pakukonzekera ndalama zochuluka momwe angathere. Gawo lalikulu lazinthuzi limachotsedwa, monganso momwe zimakhalira bankirapuse.

Pempho lokonzanso ngongole lidzaperekedwa kokha ngati wobwerekayo achita mokhulupirika zaka zisanu zapitazo pempholo. Zinthu zambiri zimaganiziridwa pakuwunikaku, kuphatikiza ngati ngongole kapena kulephera kulipira ndizolakwika komanso kuyesa kulipira ngongolezi. Chikhulupiriro chofunikanso chimafunikira nthawi yochitira izi komanso pambuyo pake. Ngati pangakhale kusowa chikhulupiriro pazochitikazo, milandu ikhoza kuthetsedwa (Article 350 ndime 3 Fw). Chikhulupiliro chabwino kumapeto komanso pambuyo pa milandu ndiyofunikiranso popereka ndikusunga mawuwo.

Munkhaniyi tafotokoza mwachidule njira zosiyanasiyana mu Fw. Kumbali imodzi pali njira zochotsera: njira zonse za bankirapuse ndi njira yokonzanso ngongole yomwe imagwira ntchito kwa anthu wamba. Pochita izi, katundu wa wobwereketsa amachotsedwa pamodzi kuti athandize onse omwe abwereketsa nawo ngongole. Kumbali inayi, kuli kuyimitsidwa kwa njira yolipirira yomwe, mwa 'kuyimitsa' ngongole zomwe amapereka kwa omwe sanatetezedwe, zitha kuthandiza wobwereketsa kuti athe kukonza bwino zinthu zake motero kuti apewe kuwonongeka. Kodi muli ndi mafunso aliwonse okhudza Fw ndi momwe zimaperekera? Kenako lemberani Law & More. Maloya athu ndi akatswiri pamalamulo okhoza kubweza ngongole ndipo adzasangalala kukuthandizani!

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