Zolemba ndi kutuluka kwa kampani yalamulo yachiwiriyo

Kampani yovomerezeka yazigawo ziwiri ndi kampani yapadera yomwe ingagwiritse ntchito ku NV ndi BV (komanso kumgwirizano). Nthawi zambiri zimaganiziridwa kuti izi zimangogwira ntchito kumagulu ogwira ntchito padziko lonse lapansi ndi zina zomwe amachita ku Netherlands. Komabe, siziyenera kukhala choncho; Dongosolo lamakonzedwe atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito posachedwa kuposa momwe munthu angaganizire. Kodi ichi ndi chinthu chomwe chiyenera kupewedwa kapena chili ndi maubwino ake? Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza zakunja ndi kutuluka kwa kampani yovomerezeka yokhala ndi magawo awiri ndikuthandizani kuwunika moyenera zotsatira zake.

Zolemba ndi kutuluka kwa kampani yalamulo yachiwiriyo

Cholinga cha kampani yovomerezeka yazigawo ziwiri

Kampani yokhazikitsidwa ndi malamulo iwiri idakhazikitsidwa mothandizidwa ndi malamulo chifukwa chokhazikitsa gawo la magawo azaka zapakati pazaka zapitazi. Kumene kunali ogawana ambiri omwe adadzipereka kwanthawi yayitali, zimachulukirachulukira (ngakhale ndalama zapenshoni) kuyika ndalama zochepa pakampani. Popeza izi zidayambitsanso kutenga nawo mbali pang'ono, Msonkhano Wonse waogawana (womwe pano ndi 'GMS') sunathe kuyang'anira oyang'anira. Izi zidapangitsa kuti nyumba yamalamulo iyambitse kampani yovomerezeka yazigawo ziwiri m'ma 1970: bizinesi yapadera momwe kuyang'anira mwamphamvu kumafunidwa moyenera pakati pa ogwira ntchito ndi ndalama. Izi zikuyenera kukwaniritsidwa ndikukhwimitsa ntchito ndi mphamvu za Supervisory Board (pano 'SB') ndikukhazikitsa Work Council pomenyera mphamvu ya GMS.

Lero, izi pakugawana masheya ndizofunikira. Chifukwa chakuti gawo la omwe ali ndi masheya m'makampani akuluakulu silingokhala, zitha kuchitika kuti ochepa omwe ali ndi masheya amatsogolera ma GMS ndikukhala ndi mphamvu zambiri pa oyang'anira. Kugawana kwakanthawi kwakanthawi kothandizirana kumalimbikitsa masomphenya akanthawi kochepa pomwe magawo ayenera kukwera mtengo mwachangu momwe angathere. Awa ndi malingaliro ochepa pazokonda zamakampani, popeza omwe akuchita nawo kampaniyo (monga ogwira nawo ntchito) amapindula ndi masomphenya a nthawi yayitali. Code Corporate Governance Code imalankhula za 'kulenga phindu kwakanthawi' pankhaniyi. Ichi ndichifukwa chake kampani yokhazikitsidwa mwalamulo ikadali kampani yofunikira masiku ano, yomwe cholinga chake ndi kukonzanso zomwe anthu akuchita.

Ndi makampani ati omwe ali oyenera kuyang'anira dongosolo?

Malamulo okhazikitsidwa mwalamulo awiri (omwe amatchedwanso dongosolo lamalamulo kapena 'structuurrregime' mu Dutch) sakakamizidwa nthawi yomweyo. Lamuloli limakhazikitsa zofunikira zomwe kampani iyenera kukwaniritsa isanafike pempho lakelo pambuyo poti papite nthawi (kupatula ngati pali chikhululukiro, chomwe chikambidwe pansipa) Izi ndizofunikira mu gawo 2: 263 la Dutch Civil Code ('DCC'):

  • The likulu lolembetsa la kampaniyo Pamodzi ndi nkhokwe zomwe zafotokozedwa pa balasiti kuphatikizapo manambala ofotokozera amafikira osachepera ndalama yokhazikitsidwa ndi Royal Decree (yomwe yakonzedwa ku € 16 miliyoni). Izi zimaphatikizaponso magawo omwe awomboledwa (koma osafafanizidwa) ndi nkhokwe zonse zobisika monga zikuwonetsedwa m'mawu ofotokozera.
  • Kampani, kapena kampani yodalirika, yakhazikitsa Ntchito Council kutengera ndi udindo walamulo.
  • Ogwira ntchito osachepera 100 ku Netherlands amalembedwa ntchito ndi kampani ndi kampani yomwe imadalira. Zowona kuti ogwira ntchito sakugwira ntchito yokhazikika kapena yanthawi zonse sizimachita izi.

Kampani yodalira ndi chiyani?

Lingaliro lofunikira kuchokera pazofunikira izi ndi kampani yozungulira. Nthawi zambiri pamakhala malingaliro olakwika akuti malamulo okhazikika awiriwa sakugwira ntchito ku kampani ya makolo, mwachitsanzo chifukwa si kampani ya makolo yomwe idakhazikitsa Work Council koma kampani yothandizira. Ndikofunikanso kuwunika ngati zinthu zina zakwaniritsidwa pokhudzana ndi makampani ena mgululi. Izi zitha kuwerengedwa ngati makampani odalira (malinga ndi nkhani 2: 152/262 DCC) ngati ali:

  1. munthu walamulo yemwe kampani kapena kampani imodzi kapena zingapo zimadalira, zokhazokha kapena limodzi ndipo chifukwa cha akaunti yawo kapena yawoyawo, perekani theka la likulu lolembetsa,
  2. kampani yomwe bizinesi imalembetsedwa m'kaundula wazamalonda ndi kampani kapena kampani yodalira ali ndi mangawa kwathunthu ngati mnzake wothandizirana naye pagulu lachitatu pazangongole zonse.

Ntchito yodzifunira

Pomaliza, ndizotheka kuti agwiritse ntchito dongosolo (lathunthu kapena lochepetsedwa) la magawo awiri mwadzidzidzi. Zikatero, chofunikira chachiwiri chokha chokhudza Work Council ndicho chimagwira. Malamulo ovomerezeka awiriwa amagwiranso ntchito atangophatikizidwa ndi zomwe kampaniyo idalemba.

Kukhazikitsidwa kwa kampani yovomerezeka yazigawo ziwiri

Kampani ikakwaniritsa zomwe tafotokozazi, ndiyovomerezeka kukhala 'kampani yayikulu'. Izi ziyenera kulembedwa ku kaundula wamalonda pasanathe miyezi iwiri kukhazikitsidwa kwa maakaunti apachaka ndi GMS. Kusiya kulembetsa kumeneku kumawerengedwa kuti ndi vuto lazachuma. Kuphatikiza apo, aliyense wokondweretsedwa akhoza kupempha khothi kuti lilembetse. Ngati kulembetsa kumeneku kwakhala kukulembetsedwa kwa zaka zitatu, kayendetsedwe kake kagwiritsidwe ntchito. Panthawiyo, zolemba za bungwe ziyenera kuti zidasinthidwa kuti zithandizire boma. Nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito malamulo oyendetsera magawo awiri siyimayambira mpaka kulembetsa kulembedwa, ngakhale chidziwitsocho chitasiyidwa. Kulembetsa kumatha kusokonezedwa pakadali pano ngati kampaniyo singakwaniritse zofunikira pamwambapa. Kampani ikadziwitsidwa kuti ikutsatiranso, nthawi imayamba kuyambira koyambirira (pokhapokha nthawiyo idasokonezedwa molakwika).

(Pang'ono) kukhululukidwa

Udindo wazidziwitso sugwira ntchito ngati sangapulumutsidwe kwathunthu. Ngati kayendetsedwe kake kakugwiritsidwa ntchito, izi zitha kukhalapo popanda nthawi yothamangitsanso. Zotsatirazi zikutsatiridwa ndi lamulo:

  1. Kampaniyo ndi kampani yodalira yomwe ili ndi dongosolo lonse kapena lochepetsedwa. Mwanjira ina, wothandizirayo sangakhululukidwe ngati njira (yochepetsedwa) yamagulu awiri ikugwira ntchito kwa kholo, koma mosemphana ndi zina sizingapangitse kuti kholo likhululukidwe.
  2. The kampaniyo imakhala ngati manejala ndi kampani yachuma pagulu lapadziko lonse lapansi, kupatula kuti omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kampaniyo komanso makampani omwe amagwirira ntchito ndi omwe ambiri amagwira ntchito kunja kwa Netherlands.
  3. Kampani yomwe pafupifupi theka la likulu lomwe laperekedwa nawo a mgwirizano ndi mabungwe awiri ovomerezeka malinga ndi kayendetsedwe kake.
  4. Kampani yothandizira ndi gulu lapadziko lonse lapansi.

Palinso njira zochepetsera kapena zofooketsa zamagulu apadziko lonse lapansi, momwe SB siloledwa kusankha kapena kuchotsa mamembala a komiti yoyang'anira. Cholinga cha izi ndikuti mgwirizano ndi mfundo zomwe zili mgululi zomwe zili ndi kampani yovomerezeka ziwiri zasweka. Izi zikugwira ntchito ngati imodzi mwamawu otsatirawa abwera:

  1. Kampaniyo ndi (i) kampani yama board awiri pomwe (ii) osachepera theka la ndalama zomwe zimasungidwa zimakhala ndi kampani ya makolo (achi Dutch kapena akunja) kapena kampani yodalira ndipo (iii) ambiri gulu 'Ogwira ntchito amagwira ntchito kunja kwa Netherlands.
  2. Osachepera theka la likulu lokhazikitsidwa mwalamulo la anthu awiri amakhala ndi makampani awiri kapena kupitilira a mgwirizano wogwirizana dongosolo (mgwirizano wogwirizana), ambiri mwa omwe ogwira ntchito m'magulu awo amagwira ntchito kunja kwa Netherlands.
  3. Pafupifupi theka la likulu lomwe limaperekedwa limasungidwa ndi kampani ya makolo kapena kampani yomwe imadalira poyanjana yomwe ndi kampani yovomerezeka.

Zotsatira za kayendetsedwe kake

Nthawi ikatha, kampaniyo iyenera kukonzanso zolemba zake mogwirizana ndi malamulo oyendetsera mabungwe awiriwa (Zolemba 2: 158-164 za DCC za NV ndi Zolemba 2: 268-2: 274 za DCC ya BV). Kampani yamagulu awiriwa imasiyana ndi kampani yanthawi zonse pamfundo izi:

  • The kukhazikitsidwa kwa komiti yoyang'anira (kapena bolodi limodzi logwirizana malinga ndi Article 2: 164a / 274a wa DCC) ndilololedwa;
  • The SB ipatsidwa mphamvu zowonjezera powononga mphamvu za GMS. Mwachitsanzo, SB ipatsidwa ufulu wovomereza pazokhudza zisankho zofunika pakuwongolera ndipo (pansi paulamuliro wonse) itha kusankha ndikuchotsa owongolera.
  • The mamembala a SB amasankhidwa ndi GMS posankhidwa ndi SB, omwe gawo limodzi mwa atatu mwa mamembala amasankhidwa ndi Work Council. Kusankhidwako kungakanidwe ndi unyinji wambiri woyimilira gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a likulu lomwe laperekedwa.

Kapangidwe kazoyipa?

Mphamvu ya omwe ali ndi ziwopsezo zazing'ono, omenyera ufulu wawo komanso omwe ali ndi masheya okha atha kuchepetsedwa ndi kayendetsedwe kake. Izi ndichifukwa choti SB, kudzera pakuwonjezera mphamvu zake, imatha kuyang'ana pazokonda zambiri pakampani, kuphatikiza chidwi cha omwe ali ndi masheya, omwe amapindulitsa omwe akuchita nawo gawo limodzi komanso kupitiriza kwa kampani. Ogwira ntchito amalimbikitsanso kwambiri malingaliro amakampani, chifukwa Work Council imasankha gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a SB.

Kuletsa kwa olowa nawo masheya

Komabe, kampani yalamulo ya magulu awiri itha kukhala yopweteketsa ngati pakhoza kuchitika zomwe zikusiyana ndi zomwe amagawana kwakanthawi kochepa. Izi ndichifukwa choti omwe ali ndi masheya akulu, omwe kale adalemetsa kampaniyo ndi chidwi chawo komanso masomphenya a nthawi yayitali (monga, m'mabizinesi am'banja), ali ndi malire pazowongolera zamagulu awiri. Izi zikhozanso kupangitsa kuti kampaniyo isakopeke ndi ndalama zakunja. Izi ndichifukwa choti kampani yalamulo ya magulu awiri satha kugwiritsa ntchito ufulu wosankhidwa ndi kuchotsedwa ntchito - njira yofunika kwambiri yolamulirayi - komanso (ngakhale m'boma lochepetsedwa) kugwiritsa ntchito ufulu wa veto pamalingaliro ofunikira oyang'anira . Ufulu wotsala wotsimikizira kapena wotsutsa komanso kuthekera kuchotsedwa pakadali pano ndi mthunzi chabe wa izi. Kufunika kwamalamulo awiri okhazikika malinga ndi chikhalidwe cha omwe amagawana nawo kampani.

Makonzedwe opangidwa mwaluso

Komabe, ndizotheka kupanga njira zokhalira ndi omwe akugawana nawo kampaniyo motsatira malamulo. Mwachitsanzo, ngakhale sizotheka mu zolemba za mabungwe kuti muchepetse kuvomereza zisankho zofunika za SB, ndizotheka kupempha kuvomerezedwa ndi bungwe lina logwirizana (monga GMS) pazisankhozi. Pazifukwa izi, malamulo abwinobwino osintha zolemba mothandizirana amagwiranso ntchito. Kupatula kupatuka pazolemba za mayanjano, kupatuka kwamapangano ndi kotheka. Komabe, izi sizoyenera chifukwa sizikakamizidwa pamalamulo amakampani. Pogwiritsa ntchito malamulo ovomerezeka ovomerezeka mwalamulo, ndizotheka kupeza njira yolowera m'boma lomwe likugwirizana ndi kampaniyo, ngakhale zili zofunikira.

Kodi mudakali ndi mafunso okhudza kayendedwe kake mukawerenga nkhaniyi, kapena mungafune upangiri wosintha pamachitidwe? Ndiye chonde lemberani Law & More. Maloya athu ndiopanga malamulo azamakampani ndipo adzasangalala kukuthandizani!

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