The New Amendment ku Dutch Trust Offices Supervision Act ndikupereka kwa domicile kuphatikiza

Kwa zaka zapitazi gawo lachi Dutch lazikhulupiriro lakhala gawo loyendetsedwa kwambiri. Maofesi a trust ku Netherlands akuyang'aniridwa mosamalitsa. Cholinga cha izi ndikuti olamulira amvetsetseka pomaliza ndikuzindikira kuti maofesi a trust ali pachiwopsezo chachikulu chotenga nawo gawo popanga ndalama kapena kuchita bizinesi ndi zipani zachinyengo. Kuti athe kuyang'anira maofesi a trust ndikuwongolera gawoli, bungwe loyang'anira ofesi ya Dutch Trust (Wtt) lidayamba kugwira ntchito mchaka cha 2004. Malinga ndi lamuloli, maofesi a trust amayenera kukwaniritsa zofunikira zingapo kuti athe kutero kuchita zochitika zawo. Posachedwa kusintha kwina kwa Wtt kudavomerezedwa, komwe kunayamba kugwira ntchito pa 1 Januware, 2019. Kusintha kwamalamulo awa kukuphatikiza, mwa zinthu zina, kuti tanthauzo la wopereka domicile molingana ndi Wtt lakhala lalikulu. Chifukwa cha kusinthaku, mabungwe ambiri amagwera mkati mwa Wtt, zomwe zingakhale ndi zotsatirapo zazikulu pamaphunziro awa. Munkhaniyi tidzafotokozeredwa zomwe kusinthidwa kwa Wtt kukuphatikiza ndi kaperekedwe ka domicile ndi zomwe zingachitike chifukwa cha kusinthaku komwe kuli mderali.

The New Amendment ku Dutch Trust Office Supervision Act ndikupereka kwa domicile kuphatikiza

1. Mbiri yakuwongolera komwe ofesi ya Dutch Trust ikuyang'anira

 Ofesi ya trust ndi bungwe lalamulo, kampani kapena munthu wachilengedwe yemwe, mwaukadaulo kapena wamalonda, amapereka ntchito imodzi kapena zingapo zantchito, ali ndi mabungwe kapena makampani ena ovomerezeka. Monga momwe dzina la Wtt limasonyezera kale, maofesi odalirika amayang'aniridwa. Woyang'anira ndi Dutch Central Bank. Popanda chilolezo chochokera ku Dutch Central Bank, maofesi a trustti saloledwa kugwira ntchito kuchokera ku ofesi ku Netherlands. Wtt imaphatikizapo, pakati pa maphunziro ena, tanthauzo la ofesi ya trust ndi zofunikira zomwe maofesi a trust ku The Netherlands ayenera kukumana kuti apeze chilolezo. Wtt imakhala ndi magulu asanu a ntchito zodalirika. Mabungwe omwe amapereka ntchitoyi amafotokozedwa ngati ofesi yokhulupirika ndipo amafuna chilolezo malinga ndi Wtt. Izi zikukhudza ntchito zotsatirazi:

  • kukhala wotsogolera kapena wothandizana naye wovomerezeka kapena kampani;
  • kupereka adilesi kapena adilesi ya positi, limodzi ndi kupereka ntchito zowonjezera (kupereka kwa domicile kuphatikizanso);
  • kugwiritsa ntchito kampani yopanga makina mochitira kasitomala;
  • kugulitsa kapena kuyanjanitsa pakugulitsa mabungwe amilandu;
  • kukhala ngati trastii.

Akuluakulu aku Dutch akhala ndi zifukwa zosiyanasiyana zopezera Wtt. Asanakhazikitse Wtt, gawo lazachikhulupiliro linali lisanapangidwe, kapena kupangika pang'ono, makamaka pokhudzana ndi gulu lalikulu lamaofesi ang'onoang'ono. Pobweretsa kuyang'anira, malingaliro abwinowo pagulu lodalirika likhoza kukwaniritsidwa. Chifukwa chachiwiri chokhazikitsira Wtt ndichakuti mabungwe apadziko lonse lapansi, monga Financial Action Task Force, adanenanso za chiwopsezo chowonjezeka kuti maofesi achitetezo azichita nawo, mwazinthu zina, kuwononga ndalama komanso kuzemba ndalama. Malinga ndi mabungwewa, panali chiyembekezo pachiwopsezo m'zigawo zodalirika zomwe zimayenera kuyendetsedwa kudzera pakulamulira ndi kuwayang'anira. Mabungwe apadziko lonse lapansi alimbikitsanso njira, kuphatikiza mfundo yodziwitsa makasitomala anu, yomwe imayang'ana kwambiri pakuchita bizinesi yosawonongeka komanso komwe maofesi azikhulupiriro amafunika kudziwa omwe amachitirana nawo bizinesi. Cholinga ndikuletsa kuti bizinesiyo ichitike ndi zipani zachinyengo kapena zachiwawa. Chifukwa chomaliza chokhazikitsira Wtt ndikuti kudziwongolera pazamaofesi azikhulupiriro ku Netherlands sikunkaonedwa kuti ndikokwanira. Si maofesi onse azikhulupiriro omwe amakhala ndi malamulo ofanana, chifukwa si maofesi onse omwe anali ogwirizana munthambi kapena bungwe la akatswiri. Kuphatikiza apo, woyang'anira yemwe angaonetsetse kuti malamulo akusungidwa akusowa. [1] Kenako a Wtt adawonetsetsa kuti malamulo omveka bwino okhudzana ndi maofesi akhazikitsidwe ndikuti mavuto omwe atchulidwawa akwaniritsidwa.

2. Tanthauzo lakupereka chithandizo cha ntchito yofikira

 Chiyambire kukhazikitsidwa kwa Wtt mu 2004, pakhala pali zosintha pafupipafupi pamalamulowa. Pa Novembala 6, 2018, Nyumba Yamalamulo Yaku Dutch idasintha kusintha kwatsopano ku Wtt. Pogwiritsa ntchito lamulo loyang'anira ofesi ya Dutch Trust 2018 (Wtt 2018), yomwe idayamba kugwira ntchito pa Januware 1, 2019, zofunikira zomwe maofesi azikhulupiliro ayenera kukwaniritsa zakhala zovuta kwambiri ndipo oyang'anira ali ndi njira zowonjezera. Kusinthaku, mwa zina, kwalimbikitsa lingaliro la 'kupereka malo okhala'. Pansi pa Wtt wakale ntchito yotsatira idatengedwa ngati ntchito yodalirika: kuperekedwa kwa adilesi ya bungwe lalamulo kuphatikiza ntchito zina zowonjezera. Amadziwikanso kuti makonzedwe a domicile kuphatikiza.

Choyamba, ndikofunikira kumvetsetsa zomwe kuperekedwa kwa domicile kumakhudza. Malinga ndi Wtt, kuperekedwa kwa domicile ndiko kuperekera adilesi ya positi kapena adilesi yoyendera, mwa lamulo kapena bungwe lalamulo, kampani kapena munthu wachilengedwe yemwe si wa gulu lomwelo monga wopereka adilesi. Ngati bungwe lomwe limapereka adilesiyo likuchita zina zowonjezera kuwonjezera pamaliridwe awa, tikulankhula za kuperekedwa kwa domicile kuphatikiza. Pamodzi, ntchito izi zimawonedwa ngati ntchito yokhulupirika malinga ndi Wtt. Mautumiki owonjezerawa anali okhudzidwa ndi Wtt wakale:

  • kupereka upangiri kapena kupereka chithandizo kumilandu yaboma, kupatula kuchita zochitika zalandirani;
  • kupereka malangizo a msonkho kapena kusamalira ndalama za msonkho ndi ntchito zofananira;
  • kupanga zochitika zokhudzana ndi kukonzekera, kuwunika kapena kufufuza maakaunti apachaka kapena kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe;
  • kulembetsa wotsogolera bungwe lazovomerezeka kapena kampani;
  • Zochita zina zowonjezera zomwe zimapangidwa ndi adongosolo akulu oyang'anira.

Kupereka kwamawebusayiti limodzi ndi kuchita chimodzi mwazomwe zanenedwa pamwambapa kumawerengedwa kuti ndi ntchito yodalirika pansi pa Wtt yakale. Mabungwe omwe amapereka ntchito zophatikizazi ayenera kukhala ndi chilolezo malinga ndi Wtt.

Pansi pa Wtt 2018, ntchito zowonjezera zasinthidwa pang'ono. Tsopano ikukhudza zochitika zotsatirazi:

  • kupereka upangiri wazamalamulo kapena kupereka thandizo, kupatula kuchita zochitika zalandirani;
  • kusamalira kulengeza kwamisonkho ndi ntchito zina;
  • kupanga zochitika zokhudzana ndi kukonzekera, kuwunika kapena kufufuza maakaunti apachaka kapena kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe;
  • kulembetsa wotsogolera bungwe lazovomerezeka kapena kampani;
  • Zochita zina zowonjezera zomwe zimapangidwa ndi adongosolo akulu oyang'anira.

Ndizachidziwikire kuti ntchito zowonjezera zomwe zikuwongoleredwa ndi Wtt 2018 sizimachoka mu ntchito zowonjezera zomwe zimayang'aniridwa ndi Wtt wakale. Tanthauzo lakupereka upangiri pansi pa mfundo yoyamba ndiwokulitsidwa pang'ono ndipo kuperekedwa kwa upangiri wamisonkho kumachotsedwa pofotokozedwaku, koma mwanjira ina zimakhudza pafupifupi ntchito zina zowonjezera.

Komabe, pamene Wtt 2018 ikufanizidwa ndi Wtt yakale, kusintha kwakukulu pokhudzana ndi kuperekedwa kwa domicile kuphatikiza kumatha kuwoneka. Potengera nkhani 3, ndime 4, sub b Wtt 2018, ndizoletsedwa kugwira ntchito popanda chilolezo pamaziko a lamuloli, omwe cholinga chake ndi kuperekanso adilesi ya positi kapena adilesi yoyendera monga tafotokozera b pa tanthauzo la ntchito zachitetezo, komanso pochita zina zowonjezera monga zatchulidwira mbali imeneyo, kuti athandizire munthu m'modzi yemweyo, bungwe lalamulo kapena kampani.[2]

Kuletsa kumeneku kudadza chifukwa kuperekedwa kwa malo okhala ndi ntchito zina zowonjezera nthawi zambiri olekanitsidwa mchitidwe, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti ntchitozi siziyendetsedwa ndi chipani chimodzi. M'malo mwake, gulu limodzi mwachitsanzo limagwira ntchito zowonjezerazo kenako ndikubweretsa kasitomalayo ndi gulu lina lomwe limapereka domicile. Popeza kuchita kwawowonjezera ntchito ndi kuperekera kwa masamba sikuyendetsedwa ndi chipani chimodzi, sikuti timalankhula za ntchito ya trust malinga ndi Wtt wakale. Pakulekanitsa ntchitozi, palibenso chilolezo chofunikira malinga ndi Wtt yakale ndipo kukakamira kwake kulandira chilolezo kumapeewedwa. Pofuna kupewa kugawanika kwa ntchito za chikhulupiliro mtsogolo, zoletsa zalembedwera mu nkhani 3, ndime 4, sub b Wtt 2018.

3. Zotsatira zofunikira zoletsa kulekanitsa ntchito zautumiki

Malinga ndi Wtt wakale, ntchito za opereka chithandizo zomwe zimalekanitsa kuperekedwa kwa domicile ndi zochitika zina zowonjezera, ndipo zomwe izi zikuchitidwa ndi magulu osiyanasiyana, sizigwera pamalingaliro amtumiki wokhulupirira. Komabe, zoletsa izi kuchokera mundime 3, ndime 4, sub b Wtt 2018, ndizovomerezeka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti maphwando omwe akufuna kupitiliza kuchita ntchito zawo motere, amafunika chilolezo chifukwa chake amayang'aniridwa ndi Dutch National Bank.

Zoletsedwazo zimakhudza kuti opereka chithandizo amapereka ntchito yokhulupirika malinga ndi Wtt 2018 pamene akuchita zochitika zomwe cholinga chake ndikupereka domicile ndikugwira ntchito zina zowonjezera. Wopereka chithandizo saloledwa kuchita ntchito zowonjezera ndikutsatira kasitomala wake ndi gulu lina lomwe limapereka domicile, popanda kukhala ndi chilolezo malinga ndi Wtt. Kuphatikiza apo, wopereka chithandizo ndi osaloledwa kuchita ngati mkhalapakati pakubweretsa kasitomala m'magulu osiyanasiyana omwe angapereke maofesi ndi kuchitanso ntchito zina, popanda chilolezo.[3] Izi zimachitikadi pomwe nkhalapakati sapereka malo okhala, kapena kugwira ntchito zowonjezera.

4. Kutumiza makasitomala awo kwa omwe amapereka chithandizo chokhazikika

Pochita izi, nthawi zambiri pamakhala maphwando ena omwe amachita zowonjezera ndipo kenako amatumiza kasitomala kwa owasungitsa ena. Potumiza izi, woperekera maofesiwo nthawi zambiri amapereka ngongole ku chipani chomwe chimatumiza kasitomala. Komabe, malinga ndi Wtt 2018, sizololedwa kuti operekera chithandizo agwirizane ndikugawa mwadala ntchito zawo kuti apewe Wtt. Bungwe likachita ntchito zowonjezera kwa makasitomala, sizimaloledwa kutumizira makasitomala awa kwa omwe akuwapatsa masisitere. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pali mgwirizano pakati pa magulu omwe cholinga chake ndi kupewetsa Wtt. Komanso, Commission ikalandiridwa kuti ikatumizidwe, zikuwoneka kuti pali mgwirizano pakati pa zipani zomwe ma trust amalekanitsidwa.

Nkhani yoyenera kuchokera ku Wtt imalankhula za zochitika cholinga cha Onse omwe amapereka adilesi ya positi kapena adilesi yoyendera ndikuchita zina zowonjezera. Chikumbukiro chosinthira chimanena kumabweretsa kasitomala ndi maphwando osiyanasiyana. [4] Wtt 2018 ndi lamulo latsopano, chifukwa chake pakadali pano palibe zigamulo zalamulo zokhudzana ndi lamuloli. Kuphatikiza apo, zolemba zofunikira zimangofotokoza kusintha komwe lamuloli limaphatikizapo. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, pakadali pano, sizikudziwika bwino momwe lamuloli lidzagwirire ntchito moyenera. Zotsatira zake, sitikudziwa pakadali pano kuti ndi zochita ziti zomwe zimafanana ndi matanthauzidwe a 'cholinga chake' ndi 'kulumikizana ndi'. Chifukwa chake pakadali pano sizingatheke kunena kuti ndi zochita ziti zomwe zimagwera ndendende poletsa nkhani 3, ndime 4, sub b Wtt 2018. Komabe, ndizotsimikizika kuti uku ndikotsika pang'ono. Kunena za omwe amapereka malo okhala ndi kulandira komiti ya otumiziridwayi kumawerengedwa kuti kumakhudzana ndi makasitomala ndi omwe amakhala kwawo. Kuyamikiridwa kwa omwe amapereka malo okhala omwe amakhala ndi zokumana nazo zabwino kumawopsa, ngakhale kuti kasitomala sanatchulidwe mwachindunji kwa omwe amakhala. Komabe, pakadali pano wothandizila wakunyumba yemwe kasitomala angalumikizane naye atchulidwa. Pali mwayi wabwino kuti izi ziziwoneka ngati 'kukumana ndi kasitomala' ndi omwe amapereka malo okhala. Kupatula apo, pakadali pano kasitomala sayenera kuchita khama kuti apeze malo okhala. Adakalibe funso ngati timalankhula za 'kubweretsa kasitomala kuti alumikizane' ndi kasitomala akatumizidwa patsamba lodzaza ndi Google. Izi ndichifukwa choti potero, palibe amene amapereka malo okhalamo omwe angalimbikitsidwe, koma bungweli limapereka mayina a omwe amapereka malo okhala kwa kasitomala. Pofuna kufotokozera kuti ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zikugwirizana ndi zoletsedwazo, malamulo ayenera kupitilizidwa kukhothi.

5. Kutsiliza

Zikuwonekeratu kuti Wtt 2018 ikhoza kukhala ndi zotsatira zazikulu kwa maphwando omwe akuchita ntchito zowonjezera ndipo nthawi yomweyo amatumiza makasitomala awo kupita ku gulu lina lomwe lingapereke domicile. Pansi pa Wtt yakale, mabungwe awa sanagwire mkati mwa Wtt ndipo chifukwa chake sanafune chilolezo malinga ndi Wtt. Komabe, popeza Wtt 2018 yayamba kugwira ntchito, pali zoletsa pazomwe zimatchedwa kulekanitsa ntchito za ntchito za trust. Kuyambira pano mpakana, mabungwe omwe amagwira ntchito zomwe zimayang'ana pakupereka kwamawebusayiti komanso pogwira ntchito zina, amagwera pamtunda wa Wtt ndipo ayenera kupeza chilolezo malinga ndi lamuloli. Mwakuchita, pali mabungwe ambiri omwe amachita ntchito zina zowonjezereka kenako amatumiza makasitomala awo kwa omwe amawasungitsa ku domicile. Kwa kasitomala aliyense yemwe amatanthauza, amalandila kutumizidwa ndi omwe amapereka chithandizo. Komabe, popeza Wtt 2018 idayamba kugwira ntchito, siziloledwa kuti opereka chithandizo agwirizane ndikulekanitsa mwadala ntchitozo kuti apewe Wtt. Mabungwe omwe amagwiritsa ntchito pamenepa, ayenera kuwunika mozama ntchito zawo. Mabungwewa ali ndi njira ziwiri: amasintha ntchito zawo, kapena amagwera mkati mwa Wtt ndipo chifukwa chake amafunika chilolezo ndipo amayang'aniridwa ndi Dutch Central Bank.

Lumikizanani

Ngati muli ndi mafunso kapena ndemanga mutatha kuwerenga nkhaniyi, chonde dziwani kuti ndinu omasuka kulumikizana ndi Mr. Maxim Hodak, loya pa Law & More kudzera [imelo ndiotetezedwa], kapena mr. Tom Meevis, loya pa Law & More kudzera [imelo ndiotetezedwa], kapena imbani +31 (0) 40-3690680.

 

[1] K. Frielink, Toezicht Trustkantoren ku Nederland, Wolemba: Wolters Kluwer Nederland 2004.

[2] Kamerstukken II 2017/18, 34 910, 7 (Nota van Wijziging).

[3] Kamerstukken II 2017/18, 34 910, 7 (Nota van Wijziging).

[4] Kamerstukken II 2017/18, 34 910, 7 (Nota van Wijziging).

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