Kulembetsa kwa UBO: mantha a UBO aliyense?

1. Introduction

Pa 20 Meyi, 2015 Nyumba Yamalamulo ya ku Europe idatengera Lamulo Lachinayi Losiyanitsa Ndalama. Pamaziko a Direkitala iyi, dziko lililonse lili ndi udindo kukhazikitsa kaundula wa UBO. Mabungwe onse a UBO a kampani ayenera kuphatikizidwa mu kaundula. Monga UBO itha kulandira munthu aliyense mwachilengedwe yemwe amakhala ndi chidwi choposerapo 25% cha (share) kampani, osakhala kampani yomwe imalembedwa pamsika. Pakakhala kulephera kukhazikitsa UBO ('s), njira yotsiriza ikhoza kukhala yokhudza munthu wachilengedwe kuchokera kwa omwe amayang'anira kampani kuti akhale UBO. Ku Netherlands, ulembedwe wa UBO uyenera kuphatikizidwa Juni 26, 2017. Chiyembekezo ndikuti, kulembetsa kumabweretsa zotsatira zambiri chifukwa cha bizinesi ya Dutch ndi Europe. Pamene wina safuna kudabwitsidwa mosasangalatsa, chithunzi chowonekera cha zomwe zikubwera ndizofunikira. Chifukwa chake, nkhaniyi iyesa kumveketsa bwino tanthauzo la kulembetsa kwa UBO powunikira momwe zidalili ndi tanthauzo lake.

2. Lingaliro la ku Europe

Lamulo Lachinayi Losiyanitsa Ndalama Zopangira Dongosolo ndi zopangidwa ku Europe. Lingaliro lomwe lakhazikitsa Directive iyi ndikuti Europe ikufuna kuletsa osokoneza ndalama ndi omwe amapereka ndalama zachigawenga kuti asamagwiritse ntchito ufulu wa likulu ndi ufulu wopereka chithandizo chachuma pazifukwa zawo. Mwakugwirizana ndi ichi ndi cholinga chokhazikitsa chizindikiritso cha onse a UBO, kukhala anthu omwe ali ndiulamuliro wokwanira. Kulembetsa kwa UBO kumangokhala gawo limodzi la zosintha zomwe zabweretsedwa ndi Lachinayi la Anti-Money Laundering Directive pokwaniritsa cholinga chake.

Monga tanena, Directive iyenera kukhazikitsidwa Juni 26, 2017. Pamalo olembetsera UBO, Directive imafotokoza bwino. Directive imalimbikitsa ma membala mamembala kuti abweretse milandu yambiri momwe ingathere malinga ndi malamulo. Malinga ndi Directive, mitundu itatu ya maulamuliro iyenera kukhala ndi mwayi wodziwa zambiri za UBO mulimonse: maulamuliro oyenera (kuphatikiza oyang'anira) ndi maofesi onse a Financial Intelligence Units, olamulidwa okakamira (kuphatikiza mabungwe azachuma, mabungwe azokongoza ngongole, owerenga, osunga mabizinesi ndi opereka chithandizo cha njuga) ndi anthu onse kapena mabungwe omwe angawonetse chidwi chovomerezeka. Mayiko mamembala onse ali ndi ufulu wosankha nawo boma. Mawu akuti "olamulira oyenera" safotokozedwanso mu Directive. Pachifukwa chimenecho, European Commission inapempha kuti amvetse bwino momwe angawongolere Direition ya Julayi 5, 2016.

Zambiri zomwe siziyenera kulembedwera ndi izi: dzina lathunthu, mwezi wobadwa, chaka chakubadwa, mayiko, dziko lokhala ndi chikhalidwe chake komanso kuchuluka kwa chidwi chachuma chomwe bungwe la UBO limachita. Kuphatikiza apo, tanthauzo la mawu oti "UBO" ndilofala kwambiri. Mawuwa samangokhala ndi chiwongolero chachindunji (pamphamvu ya umwini) 25% kapena kuposerapo, komanso chiwongolero chosagawanika choposa 25%. Kuwongolera osazungulira kumatanthauza kuwongolera m'njira ina iliyonse kuposa kukhala ndi umwini. Kuwongolera kumeneku kungakhazikike pamayendedwe olamulirana mu mgwirizano wa omwe akugawana nawo, kuthekera kokhala ndizokhuza kwambiri pakampani kapena kuthekera, mwachitsanzo, kusankha oyang'anira.

3. Kulembetsa ku The Netherlands

Dongosolo la Dutch loti likwaniritse makhazikitsidwe pa renti ya UBO limafotokozedwa makamaka m'makalata a minister Dijsselbloem a pa 10 febulary 2016. Ponena za mabungwe omwe afotokozedwa ndi zofunikira kulembetsa, kalatayo ikuwonetsa kuti pafupifupi palibe mitundu yamitundu yomwe ilipo ya Chi Dutch mabungwe sangakhale osakhudzidwa, kupatula okhawo omwe ali nawo komanso mabungwe onse aboma. Makampani omwe adawerengedwa samachotsedwa. Mosiyana ndi magulu atatu aanthu komanso olamulira omwe ali ndi ufulu wofufuza zomwe zalembedwa monga zidasankhidwa ku Europe, The Netherlands imasankha kulembetsa anthu onse. Izi ndichifukwa choti cholembera choletsedwa chimakhala ndi zovuta malinga ndi mtengo, kuthekera ndi kutsimikizika. Monga momwe regista izikhala pagulu, zikhalidwe zinayi zachinsinsi zidzapangidwa mu:

3.1. Aliyense wogwiritsa ntchito chidziwitsochi adzalembetsedwa.

3.2. Kupeza chidziwitso sikuperekedwa mwaulere.

3.3. Ogwiritsa ntchito ena kupatula akuluakulu omwe adasankhidwa (maulamuliro omwe akuphatikizapo ena mwa Dutch Bank, Authority Financial Markets ndi Office Supervision Office) ndi Dutch Financial Intelligence Unit ingokhala ndi chidziwitso chochepa.

3.4. Pakakhala chiopsezo chakuba, kuba, chiwawa kapena kuwopseza, kuunika kwatsatanetsatane kudzatsata, komwe kumayesedwa ngati kupezeka kwa chidziwitso kungatsekedwe ngati kuli koyenera.

Ogwiritsa ntchito kuphatikiza omwe sanasankhidwe makamaka ndi AFM angapeze chidziwitso chotsatirachi: dzina, mwezi wobadwa, mayiko, dziko lomwe akukhalamo ndi chikhalidwe chake komanso kuchuluka kwa chidwi chachuma chomwe mwiniwake amapindulitsa. Zocheperako zimatanthawuza kuti si mabungwe onse omwe amayenera kuchita kafukufuku wokakamiza wa UBO omwe angapeze chidziwitso chawo chonse kuchokera ku registry. Adziwunikira okha chidziwitsochi ndikusunga izi m'mayendedwe awo.

Popeza kuti olamulira omwe adasankhidwa ndi FIU ali ndi udindo wofufuza ndi kuyang'anira, adzakhala ndi mwayi wowonjezerapo: (1) tsiku, malo ndi dziko lobadwira, (2) adilesi, (3) nambala yothandizira nzika ndi / kapena nambala yakuzindikiritsa msonkho wakunja (TIN), (4) chikhalidwe, chiwerengero ndi tsiku ndi malo omwe chikalata chidatsimikizidwira kapena bukulo ndi (5) zolemba zomwe zimafotokoza chifukwa chake munthu ali ndiudindo wa UBO ndi kukula kwa chidwi (kachuma) kofananira.

Zoyembekeza ndikuti Chamber of Commerce iyendetse kaundula. Zomwe zimafotokozedwazo zidzafika mpaka kaundula mwa kutumiza zomwe makampaniwo ndi mabungwe amilandu okha. A UBO sangakane kutenga nawo mbali popereka izi. Kuphatikiza apo, olamulira amakakamizika, nawonso, adzakhala ndi ntchito yokakamiza: ali ndi udindo wolumikizana ndi renti zambiri zonse zomwe ali nazo, zomwe zimasiyana ndi kalembera. Olamulira omwe apatsidwa maudindo m'ndondomeko yothana ndi chiwongola dzanja, ndalama zachigawenga ndi mitundu ina yaupandu wazachuma komanso wachuma, kutengera kukula kwa ntchito yawo, azikhala ndi mwayi wopatsidwa kapena wopereka ma data omwe amasiyana ndi kaundula. Sizikudziwikabe kuti ndani adzayang'anira mwalamulo ntchito yankhondoyi ponena za (molondola) kutumiza kwa data ya UBO ndipo ndani (mwina) akhale ndi mwayi wopereka chindapusa.

4. Dongosolo lopanda zolakwika?

Ngakhale ndizofunikira kwambiri, malamulo a UBO samawoneka ngati osavomerezeka madzi pazinthu zonse. Pali njira zingapo zomwe munthu angatsimikizire kuti imodzi imagwera kunja kwa registry ya UBO.

4.1. Wodalirika
Wina akhoza kusankha kuyendetsa ntchito kudzera pa chithunzi cha kudalirika. Ziwerengero zakudalirika zimayang'aniridwa ndi malamulo osiyanasiyana pansi pa malangizo. Malangizowo amafunikira kulembetsa anthu owerengera. Kulembetsa kumeneku, komabe, sikungakhale kwa anthu onse. Mwanjira imeneyi, kusadziwika kwa anthu omwe amakhulupilira kumakhala kotetezedwa mpaka muyeso. Zitsanzo za ziwerengero zakukhulupirira ndi kudalirika kwa Anglo-America ndi kudalirika kwa Curaçao. Bonaire amadziwanso chithunzi chofanana ndi chidaliro: DPF. Umu ndi mtundu wina wa maziko, omwe, mosiyana ndi kudalira, ali ndi umwini wovomerezeka. Imayendetsedwa ndi malamulo a BES.

4.2. Kutumiza kwa mpando
Buku Lachinayi la Anti-Money Laundering Directive limatchulapo izi pazamagwiritsidwe ntchito: "... makampani ... ndi mabungwe ena azokhazikitsidwa ndi boma m'malo awo". Lamuloli likutanthauza kuti makampani, omwe amakhazikitsidwa kunja kwa gawo la mamembala, koma pambuyo pake amasuntha mpando wawo wamakampani kuti akhale membala wamilandu, samakhudzidwa ndi malamulo. Mwachitsanzo, munthu angaganize za malingaliro otchuka azamalamulo monga Jersey Ltd., BES BV ndi American Inc. A DPF amathanso kusankha kusunthira mpando wake weniweni ku Netherlands ndikupitiliza kuchita zinthu ngati DPF.

5. Zosintha zamtsogolo?

Funso ndiloti ngati European Union idzafuna kupititsa patsogolo mwayi womwe watchulidwa pamwambapa popewa malamulo a UBO. Komabe, pakadali pano palibe zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti kusintha kudzachitika pamenepa posachedwa. Pempho lake lomwe lidaperekedwa pa Julayi 5, European Commission yapempha kusintha zingapo ku Directive. Malingaliro awa sanaphatikizepo kusintha pazomwe tafotokozazi. Kuphatikiza apo, sizikudziwikabe ngati zosinthazo zikuchitika. Komabe, sichingakhale cholakwika kuwerengera zamomwe mwasinthira ndikuti kusintha kwina kudzachitika mtsogolo. Kusintha kwakukulu anayi zomwe zikunenedwa pano ndi izi:

5.1. Commission akufuna kupangitsa kuti kalembedwe kazikhala pagulu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti malangizowo asinthidwa pamalo omwe anthu ndi mabungwe angakwaniritse omwe angawonetse chidwi chovomerezeka. Komwe mwayi wawo ukadakhala wocheperako ndi zochepa zomwe zatchulidwazi, kalembedwe kazikhala kudziwululanso.

5.2. Commission ikufuna kufotokozera tanthauzo la "olamulira oyenera" motere: "Akuluakulu aboma omwe ali ndiudindo wothandizira kuthana ndi ndalama kapena zandalama, kuphatikizapo oyang'anira misonkho ndi akuluakulu aboma omwe ali ndi ntchito yofufuza kapena milandu yochotsa ndalama, zogwirizana ndi zolakwika zomwe zimayenderana ndi izi. Ndalama zachigawenga, kufunafuna ndi kulanda kapena kuzimitsa kapena kulanda zinthu zaupandu ”.

5.3. Bungwe la Commission limafunsa kuti likuwonekera poyera komanso kuti lingathe kuzindikiritsa za UBO kudzera kulumikizana kwa ma regista onse a mamembala.

5.4. Commission ikupemphanso kuti, nthawi zina, zitsike boma la UBO 25% mpaka 10%. Izi ndizomwe zimachitika kuti mabungwe azovomerezeka azikhala osachita zachuma. Awa ndi "mabungwe okhazikika omwe alibe ntchito iliyonse yazachuma ndipo amangoyendetsa ntchito kuti asunge eni ake opindulitsa".

5.5. Commission ikuwonetsa kuti zisintha tsiku loti lidzagwiritsidwe ntchito kuyambira pa June 26, 2017 mpaka Januware 1, 2017.

Kutsiliza

Kuyambitsidwa kwa kalembera wa UBO pagulu kudzakhala ndi tanthauzo lalikulu kwa mabizinesi m'mayiko mamembala. Anthu mwachindunji kapena osawerengeka omwe ali ndi zochulukirapo zomwe 25% ya (share) chiwongola dzanja cha kampani yomwe siinatchulidwe, adzakakamizidwa kudzipereka kwambiri kumalo achinsinsi, kukulitsa chiopsezo chobera anzawo komanso kuba; ngakhale Netherlands idawonetsera kuti ingachite zonse zomwe zingathetse zovuta izi momwe zingathere. Kuphatikiza apo, nthawi zina amalandila maudindo akuluakulu okhudzana ndi kuzindikira ndikufalitsa deta yosiyana ndi zomwe zalembedwa mu UBO. Kukhazikitsidwa kwa kaundula wa UBO kungatanthauze kuti munthu atembenukira ku chithunzi cha wokhulupirira, kapena bungwe lalamulo lomwe likhazikitsidwa kunja kwa mabungwe omwe ali membala omwe atha kusamutsira mpando wake kumembala. Sitikudziwa ngati izi zipitiliza kusankha mtsogolo. Kusintha komwe kwasankhidwa pano kwa The Fourth Ani-Money Laundering Directive kulibe zosintha pakadali pano. Ku Netherlands, munthu ayenera kuganizira malingaliro a kulumikizana kwa ma regista amtundu, kusintha komwe kungachitike mu 25% -kuwonetsetsa ndi tsiku lomwe lingayambire ntchito.

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