Zoyenera kuchita ngati sampuli ya mawu osaloleka?

Zoyenera kuchita ngati sampuli ya mawu osaloleka?

Kutengera nyimbo kapena kutengera nyimbo ndi njira yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri masiku ano pomwe zidutswa zamawu zimakopera pakompyuta kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito, nthawi zambiri m'mawonekedwe osinthidwa, muntchito yatsopano (yoimba), nthawi zambiri mothandizidwa ndi kompyuta. Komabe, zidutswa zomveka zimatha kukhala ndi ufulu wosiyanasiyana, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zitsanzo zosaloleka zikhale zosaloledwa.

Sampling amagwiritsa ntchito zidutswa zamawu zomwe zilipo kale. Kapangidwe, mawu, machitidwe ndi kujambula kwa zidutswa za mawu izi zitha kukhala zovomerezeka. Zolemba ndi mawu zitha kutetezedwa ndi kukopera. Kujambula (kujambula) kumatha kutetezedwa ndi ufulu wokhudzana ndi woimbayo, ndipo phonogalamu (kujambula) ikhoza kutetezedwa ndi ufulu wokhudzana ndi wojambula galamafoni. Ndime 2 ya EU Copyright Directive (2001/29) imapatsa mlembi, woimbayo, ndi wopanga galamafoni ufulu wokhawokha wakutulutsa, zomwe zimatsikira ku ufulu wololeza kapena kuletsa kupangidwanso kwa 'chinthu' chotetezedwa. Wolemba amatha kukhala wopeka ndi/kapena wolemba mawu, oimba ndi/kapena oyimba nthawi zambiri amakhala ojambula (Ndime 1 pansi pa Neighboring Rights Act (NRA)) ndipo wopanga galamafoni ndi munthu amene amapanga kujambula koyamba. , kapena yapanga ndipo ili ndi chiwopsezo chazachuma (Ndime 1 pansi pa d ya NRA). Wojambula akalemba, kuchita, kujambula, ndi kutulutsa nyimbo zake pansi pa kayendetsedwe kake, magulu osiyanasiyanawa amakhala ogwirizana mwa munthu mmodzi. Ufulu wa kukopera ndi maufulu otsatizana nawo ali m'manja mwa munthu m'modzi.

Zoyenera kuchita ngati sampuli ya mawu osaloleka?

Ku Netherlands, Copyright Directive yakhazikitsidwa mu Copyright Act (CA) ndi NRA, mwa zina. Gawo 1 la CA limateteza ufulu wa wolemba. Copyright Act imagwiritsa ntchito mawu oti 'kubereka' osati 'kukopera', koma pochita, mawu onsewa ndi ofanana. Ufulu wakubala wa wojambula komanso wopanga phonogalamu umatetezedwa ndi Gawo 2 ndi 6, motsatana, la NRA. Monga Copyright Directive, izi sizimatanthawuza kuti kutulutsa (kwathunthu kapena pang'ono). Mwachifanizo: Gawo 13 la Copyright Act limapereka izi "Kukonzekera kulikonse kapena pang'ono kapena kutsanzira mu mawonekedwe osinthidwa” kumapanga kubereka. Chifukwa chake kutulutsa kumaphatikizapo zambiri kuposa 1-pa-1, koma sizikudziwika kuti ndi njira iti yomwe iyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kuyesa milandu yam'malire. Kusamveka bwino kumeneku kwakhudza kachitidwe ka zitsanzo zomveka kwa nthawi yayitali. Ojambula omwe adatsatiridwawo samadziwa kuti ufulu wawo ukuphwanyidwa liti.

Mu 2019, Khoti Lachilungamo la European Union (CJEU) lidafotokoza izi mwa gawo lina. Pelham chigamulo, kutsatira mafunso oyambirira omwe adafunsidwa ndi German Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) (CJEU 29 July 2019, C-476/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:624). CJEU inapeza, mwa zina, kuti chitsanzo chikhoza kukhala chojambula cha phonogram, mosasamala kanthu za kutalika kwa chitsanzo (para. 29). Choncho, chitsanzo chimodzi chachiwiri chingakhalenso kuphwanya malamulo. Kuphatikiza apo, adalamulidwa kuti "kumene, pogwiritsa ntchito ufulu wake wolankhula, wogwiritsa ntchito amalemba kachidutswa ka mawu kuchokera ku phonogram kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito m'ntchito yatsopano, mumpangidwe wosinthidwa womwe sudziwika ndi khutu, kugwiritsa ntchito koteroko kuyenera kuonedwa kuti sikupanga 'kubala' mkati mwa tanthauzo la Ndime 2(c) ya Directive 2001/29′ (ndime 31, gawo logwira ntchito pansi pa 1). Choncho, ngati chitsanzo chasinthidwa m'njira yakuti phokoso la phokoso lomwe linatengedwa poyamba silidziwikanso ndi khutu, palibe funso la kupangidwanso kwa phonogram. Zikatero, chilolezo cha zitsanzo zomveka kuchokera kwa omwe ali ndi ufulu sikofunikira. Pambuyo potumizidwa kuchokera ku CJEU, BGH idalamulira pa 30 Epulo 2020 Metall kapena Metall IV, momwe idatchulira khutu lomwe chitsanzocho sichiyenera kuzindikirika: khutu la omvera wamba (BGH 30 April 2020, I ZR 115/16 (BGH XNUMX April XNUMX, I ZR XNUMX/XNUMX)Metall kapena Metall IV), para. 29). Ngakhale zigamulo za ECJ ndi BGH zikukhudza ufulu wogwirizana ndi wopanga phonogalamu, ndizomveka kuti njira zomwe zapangidwa m'zigamulozi zimagwiranso ntchito pakuphwanyidwa ndi zitsanzo zomveka za ufulu wa woimbayo ndi ufulu wogwirizana nawo. Ufulu ndi maufulu okhudzana ndi woimbayo ali ndi chitetezo chokwera kwambiri kotero kuti kudandaula ku ufulu wogwirizana ndi wopanga phonogalamu, makamaka, kudzakhala kopambana pakakhala kuti akuphwanya malamulo omveka bwino. Pachitetezo cha kukopera, mwachitsanzo, kachidutswa komveka kamayenera kukhala 'chopanga mwanzeru'. Palibe chitetezo chofunikira chotere pachitetezo chaufulu woyandikana nawo wa wopanga phonogalamu.

M'malo mwake, ndiye, kuphwanya ufulu wa kubalana ngati wina zitsanzo a Kumveka m’njira yozindikirika ndi omvetsera wamba. Komabe, Ndime 5 ya Copyright Directive ili ndi zoletsa zingapo komanso zopatulapo pazatsopano zomwe zili mu Article 2 ya Copyright Directive, kuphatikiza kuchotserapo mawu komanso kuchotserapo parody. Zitsanzo zomveka bwino pazamalonda nthawi zambiri sizingaganizidwe ndi izi, potengera zofunikira zamalamulo.

Munthu amene amadzipeza ali mumkhalidwe woti zidutswa za mawu ake zimatsatiridwa ayenera kudzifunsa funso ili:

  • Kodi munthu amene sample ali ndi chilolezo chochokera kwa omwe ali ndi ufulu?
  • Kodi chitsanzochi chasinthidwa kuti chisazindikirike kwa omvera wamba?
  • Kodi chitsanzocho chikugwera pansi pazigawo zilizonse kapena zolepheretsa?

Pakachitika mlandu wophwanya malamulo, zinthu zitha kuchitidwa m'njira izi:

  • Tumizani kalata yoyitanira kuti musiye kuphwanya.
    • Gawo loyamba lomveka ngati mukufuna kuti kuphwanyako kuyimitse posachedwa. Makamaka ngati simukuyang'ana zowonongeka koma mukungofuna kuti kuphwanya kuleke.
  • Kambiranani ndi yemwe akuti waphwanya malamulo momveka bwino chitsanzo.
    • Zingakhale choncho kuti wolakwayo sanaphwanye mwadala, kapena mosaganizira kawiri, kuphwanya ufulu wa wina. Zikatero, wolakwayo akhoza kuimbidwa mlandu ndikuwonetsetsa kuti kuphwanya kwachitika. Kuchokera pamenepo, zikhalidwe zitha kukambidwa kuti apereke chilolezo ndi omwe ali ndi ufulu kuti atsatire. Mwachitsanzo, mwiniwakeyo angafune kupereka, malipiro oyenera, kapena malipiro. Njira iyi yopereka ndi kupeza chilolezo chochitira chitsanzo imatchedwanso chilolezo. Muzochitika zodziwika bwino, izi zimachitika chisanachitike kuphwanya kulikonse.
  • Kuyambitsa mlandu wamilandu kukhoti motsutsana ndi wolakwayo.
    • Chigamulo chikhoza kuperekedwa kukhothi kutengera kuphwanya ufulu wa kukopera kapena maufulu okhudzana nawo. Mwachitsanzo, zitha kunenedwa kuti gulu lina lachita zosaloledwa pophwanya malamulo (Article 3:302 ya Dutch Civil Code), chiwonongeko chikhoza kunenedwa (Ndime 27 ya CA, Article 16 ndime 1 ya NRA) ndi phindu. atha kuperekedwa (Ndime 27a ya CA, Article 16 ndime 2 ya NRA).

Law & More adzakondwera kukuthandizani polemba kalata yofuna, kukambirana ndi wolakwayo komanso/kapena kuyambitsa milandu.

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